The Prokaryotic and the Eukaryotic Cells

Structures in a Bacterial Cell 1. Flagellum (pl. Flagella) – these are filamentous protein structures fixed to the surface of the cell, with about 20nm diameter. This structure found in bacteria is found in different distinguishing patterns, either polar, arrangement in which in flagella are found on either one or both poles or ends of the cell; or peritrichous, or flagella laterally arranged over the entire cell surface. The major function of these filamentous structures is to give most motile prokaryotes the ability to swim, or what is referred to as the motility (Todar, 2008).

They act as nanopropellers, which is pertinent in achieving a better living environment in a process called chemotaxis. Thus, the flagella are needed in order for bacteria to survive and reproduce (Arora, Bhat, and Mittal, 2007, p. 1). 2. Ribosome – the distinct granular appearance of the prokaryotic cytoplasm is attributed to the presence and distribution of the ribosomes in the intracellular network. This structure is made up of proteins and RNA, which makes it involved in the process of protein synthesis (translation), acting as the site for the process.

The ribosome is important in order to maintain the integrity of the cell, and to protect the internal structure of the cell as well that is needed for survival. The Animal Cell 1. The Endoplasmic Reticulum – this is described as an extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes and regions without ribosomes. There are two types of ER, the smooth and the rough. The rough ER has the ribosomes present in. On the other hand, the smooth one does not have ribosomes in its structure.

The rough ER produces secretory proteins, membranes, antibodies and insulin, depending on which part it exists, and the smooth ER helps the rough ER in transporting these products to other parts of the cell. Aside from this function of the smooth ER, it is also responsible in carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. These functions of the ER are important in the maintenance of life in eukaryotic organisms (About. com, 2008). 2. Golgi Complex/Golgi Apparatus – These complexes are made up of flat sacs which are stacked.

This aids in the separation of the internal parts of the cell from the cytosol. Also, this is the one responsible for the manufacturing, warehousing, and shipping of some products of the endoplasmic reticulum. Aside from the functions already mentioned, the Golgi complex also serves to modify products such as proteins and phospholipids. The proper distribution of these products is relevant in sustaining the life and structure of the cells (About. com, 2008).


About. com. (2008). Journey into the Cell: The Endoplasmic Reticulum. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://biology.about. com/library/weekly/aa041300a. htm. About. com. (2008). Journey into the Cell: The Golgi Complex. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://biology. about. com/library/weekly/aa042000a. htm. Arora, S. , Vidya Bhat, and Aditya Mittal. (2007). Correlating Single Cell Motility with Population Growth Dynamics for Flagellated Bacteria. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 97(6), p. 1644. Todar, Kenneth. (2008). Structure and Function of Procaryotic Cells. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://www. textbookofbacteriology. net/structure. html.

Prokaryotic cells are single celled organisms that were formed at the formation of the earth, so are the most basic life forms. The prokaryotes are organised in the ‘three domain system’ and include bacteria and blue-green algae. Prokaryotes live in …

Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek for true nucleus) have linear structures of DNA called chromosomes; these are found in the cell’s nucleus, which is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. The DNA of eukaryotic chromosomes is consistently associated …

This characteristic forms the basis of classification of Eubacteria. They are mainly classified as either Spherical Eubacteria also known as the cocci, spiral or helically-shaped Eubacteria (Spirilla), or rod-shaped Eubacteria (bacilli) . Morphology; Eubacteria are unicellular Prokaryotic cells with a …

The cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell encompasses the matrix inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus. The cytoplasm is the substance in which various cellular components are found. A major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoplasm is that eukaryotic …

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