The male skeleton

The male skeleton is generally larger and heavier, with broader shoulders and a narrower pelvis. The wider female pelvis results in a slight inward tilt of the legs, resulting in a reduction in the mechanical efficiency of the running action. The smaller female skeleton results in the upper body being weaker in comparison to the lower body, which is a disadvantage in events requiring strength e.g. javelin, discus, and all power’ events.

Hormonal factors lead to greater initial levels of high density lipoproteins in women. This appears to cause a smaller change in the total cholesterol-high density lipoprotein ratio than occurs with aerobic training in men Exercise In extreme environments The special cases of exercise in hot and cold environments present conflicting evidence. When men and women are matched for surface area, mass, VO2max and percentage body fat, the major disadvantages women have is in heat dispersal. The question of gender differences in the cold has yet to be fully explored. When the general population is compared, men appear to have an advantage over women.

Thermoregulation Women sweat less than men this is due to a lower output form each sweat gland. With regards to dry heat research has shown that women may adapt better than men. In relation to exercise intensities women tolerate and adapt to heat stress best. When referring to absolute temperatures, men tolerate heat stress better. Altitude Women have a greater potential for adapting to a high altitude environment. This is due to higher concentrations of progesterone (when released during the menstrual cycle). However it has been proven that women also retain water during the menstrual cycle, this leads to negative side effect- mountain sickness.

Cardiovascular and Respiratory adaptations to training Males generally have a larger heart, and as a result, a larger cardiac output and a lower resting heart rate. A result of the larger cardiac output is that males tend to have a greater endurance capacity than females due to the greater delivery of oxygenated blood to the body’s tissues.

Males also typically have a greater blood volume, and a greater red blood cell concentration than females, which also results in males having greater endurance capacities
Female athletes who try to lose weight primarily to improve their athletic performance; The disordered eating that accompanies and is in part to the female athlete triad can range from avoiding certain types of food the athlete thinks are “bad” (such as foods containing fat) to serious eating disorders like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

Triad Factor #2: Amenorrhea A female athlete who is suffering from female athlete triad is simultaneously exercising intensely and not eating enough calories, when her weight falls too low, she may experience decreases in estrogen, the hormone that helps to regulate the menstrual cycle. As a result, the athlete’s periods may become irregular or stop altogether. A female athlete who participates intensively in sports may never even get their first period because they’ve been training so hard. Other females may have had periods, but once they increase their training and change their eating habits, their periods may stop.

Triad Factor #3: Osteoporosis Low estrogen levels and poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake, can lead to osteoporosis, the third aspect of the triad. Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones due to the loss of bone density and improper bone formation. This condition can ruin a female athlete’s career because it may lead to stress fractures and other injuries. Usually, the teen years are a time when girls should be building up their bone mass to their highest levels – called peak bone mass. Not getting enough calcium during the teen years can also have a lasting effect on how strong a girl’s bones are later in life.

Therefore they have a definite disadvantage for transporting oxygen to skeletal muscles during exercise. The fact that women have a lower cardiovascular capacity than men does not mean that they are less able to adapt to endurance training. Research shows that …

Detective work has also proved to be a difficult ground for females with negative discrimination as a result of the special needs that women have. These special needs emanate from their biological engineering and society is yet to fully understand …

As a confirmation of the extreme level of discrimination that males face in the field of nursing, the statistics below will be of great help. Percentage of male and female nurses in the United States in various years In the …

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease that threatens more than 28 million Americans. Characteristics of Osteoporosis include a reduction of bone density and a change in bone structure, both of which increase susceptibility to fracture. The normal homeostatic bone turnover is …

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