The title of the research gives an effective and operational indication of the research problem, study population and research design. The key words (sucrose, infant, pain, immunization) enlighten the reader that the study focuses on the effects of sucrose to decrease infant pain during immunizations. While the abstract is clear and concise as it adequately summarizes the major points of the study, it fails however to indicate the research hypotheses and statistical treatment that should more readily convey a more descriptive overview.
These are nonetheless presented in more detail in succeeding sections of the report. The research hypotheses are very clear and testable. The parameters of the independent variable (mode of preprocedural intervention during infant immunization, i. e. , sucrose or placebo) and the dependent variables (behavioral pain response and age-related changes in behavioral pain) are well-explained. The literature review integrates and logically presents a good number of related studies as its primary sources.
Citing statistics on infant immunizations and results of previous studies underscores the significance of the research and places it within a larger framework, specifically on how knowledge will be added to the health and medical fields. The study shows a good fit between the research hypotheses and the overall study design, collection methods and analytic approaches. A detailed presentation of the design and procedure is commendable and allows for replication of the study. As in any clinical trial, experimenter and selection bias, if not prevented, could distort the outcomes.
The use of double blind techniques in this research addressed these threats to validity. The theoretical model used in the research was the “gate-control theory of pain” (GCTP), which was clearly explained and is very appropriate in measuring behavioral pain response in persons who cannot express pain verbally, such as the infants in the current study. Reference Hatfield, L. A. (2008). Sucrose decreases infant behavioral pain response to immunization: A randomized control trial. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40:3, 219-225