Sternum and the clavical

A joint is where two bones meet together, and some joints allow a large movement factor where as others are slightly movable, and some allow no movement. Immovable joints also known as fibrous are all joined together by very strong fibrous connective tissue, and that is why they are not there for movement, a good example of this would be the cranium. Slightly movable joints also known as cartilaginous joints have cartilage between the bones, which allow a small amount of movement and a good example of this would be the sternum and the clavical.

Movable joints are mostly known as synovial joints, and these allow great range of movement because they have synovial fluid which acts as a lubricant. b) Synovial joints will almost mainly be found in the appendicular skeleton as they are needed for greater range of movements in the arms and legs etc, and the cartilaginous joints will be mainly found in the axial skeleton as they are not needed as much for movement prepuces, and act more as protection and support.

There are six types of synovial joints, and they all have different (Figure 5 Synovial) ranges of movement as some have large amounts of movement and others only allow small amounts. Ball and Socket: A ball and socket joint allows a huge range of movement, and can use such movements as flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction and rotation, and some examples of these would be found in the hip and shoulder.

A sporting example of this would be a footballer taking an over arm throw, the shoulder is circumducted to bring the ball back over the players head so that power can be forced into the ball. Gliding: At a gliding joint one bone slides over another, to create a small amount of movement, an example of this would be between the vertebrae and the carpals and tarsals. Condyloid: (Figure 6 Ball and Socket)

This joint is very similar to a ball and socket joint but the only movements that can happen at it is flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction, and a good example of this would be at the wrist. A sporting example of this joint would be a basket ball player taking a free throw and aiming to get a ball in the basket, to do this he must flex his wrist with the ball balancing in his hand and then push up causing extension at the wrist to get the back spin on the ball for it to hit the back board and go in.

Hinge: (Figure 7 Gliding) At this joint the movement works just like a hinge, and allows movement back and forth (flexion and extension) an example of this would be the knee and the elbow. A sporting example of this would be a ten- pin bowler bowling a ball, the arm is brought back into extension to gain the power to put into the ball to hit the skittles and then just before the ball is released the arm comes back into flexion to bring the ball to the ground.

Pivot: With this joint it will only allow rotation, and can be found between the atlas and axis in the neck. A sporting example of this would be a footballer putting spin onto a header to make the ball go into a certain place, and to do this he would have to make contact with the ball and his head and then quickly rotate his neck so that the head of the player just swipes the ball putting spin onto it.

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