Social and personal characteristics

Personality Psychology is a section in psychology that is studying personality and the various individual processes. Modern psychology doesn’t really have universally accepted definition of personality. The reason for this is lies in the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon of personality. However here are some examples of the definition: according to Geddes (1911) “in ancient Rome, the word “persona” originally referred to the masks worn by actors on stage.

The various masks represented the various “personae” in the stage play” the other definition was given by Krauskopf and Saunders (1994) “personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations”. Human behavior is caused by many factors, however all of them can be divided into two categories, physiologically–psychological and socially-psychological, in other words the affect on the individual’s behavior has both society and personal psychological features. Physiologically–psychological Factors Personality typology in tradi? onal and modern temperament theories by Krechmer and Sheldona An attempt to establish a link between the structure of the human body and his temperament was made by German psychiatrist E. Krechmer.

In his paper “The Constitutional Typologies of Temperament”, he argued that the constitution of each corresponds to a particular psychological makeup of man. Based on clinical observations, he came to establish a connection between the body types and types of character. E. Krechmer identified three main body types and three corresponding types of temperaments. 1. Asthenic type of constitution is characterized by a long and narrow chest, long limbs, weak muscles, elongated face and corresponds schizoid temperament.

Schizothymia – is a mental disorder, people who are susceptibility to the disease are autistic, in other words they are self-absorbed, insular, exhibiting a tendency to over-abstraction and don’t have an ability to adapt to the environment (McKeown & Holmes, 2009). 2. Endomorph or Pyknos (Greek) type of constitution is characterized by a broad chest, a stocky, broad figure, round head, short neck and corresponds cycloid temperament. Cyclothymic – a person with mild affective disorder characterized by alternating periods of elevated, cheerful state of mind in manic individuals, to constantly reduced, sad mood – in depressed individuals (K Dictionaries Ltd, 2009).

3. Athletic type of constitution is characterized by strong muscles, proportionate physique, wide shoulder belt, narrow hips and corresponds to epileptic temperament, people with this type of temperament are expressing emotions restrained facial expressions and gestures, outwardly calm and unruffled, but sometimes behave inappropriately and supported by outbursts of anger and rage. They are low flexibility of thinking, petty, and it is difficult for them to adapt to the change of environment.

American psychologist William Sheldon in which he identifies three main types of somatic constitution presented the other theory about constitution: 1. Endomorphic type (with a predominant development of the internal organs and excess fat) 2. Mesomorphic (with developed muscle tissue and strong body) 3. Ectomorphic (with a fragile constitution, weak muscles, long arms and legs) Which are corresponding to three types of temperament: 1. Viscerotonia characterized by the following features: relaxation in the poses and movements, the love of physical comfort and slow reaction, the desire to communicate and also patience (McKeown & Holmes, 2009).

2. Somatotonia is characterized by the following features: self confidence in the poses and movement, energy as well as the need for physical exercise and the ability to get pleasure from them, the desire to dominate, lust for power (Princeton University, 2013). 3. Cerebrotonia characterized by the following features: self-restraint in the postures and movement, tension as well as ultra-fast response and ultra- intense mental activity, over-attentive, the ability to experience premonitions (Cerebrotonia). Constitutional typologies by E. Krechmera and U.

Sheldona and their attempts to link the body type of the individual with his or her psychological characteristics have been criticized for trying to link directly the somatotype of the person with his temperament, in other words with the psychological portrait of individual. It’s difficult to deny the connection of body types with certain personality traits and social behavior of the individual. But one should not look for the nature of this connection in hereditary bondage. By themselves, the different physical characteristics do not determine the development of mental qualities.

It can be an organic preconditions affecting the formation of mental characteristics, and actually exert it’s influence in the system of interpersonal relations of carriers bodily qualities. For example, studies have revealed that the three somatotype U. Sheldona (endomorp, mesomorp, ectomorph ) have in the eyes of teenagers unequal attraction. The most attractive – mesomorphic, and the least attractive – endomorphic type. With a slender, muscular body teens associate quality leader, activity. Thick teenager is the subject of ridicule. Such teenagers rarely occupy a leading position among peers, have fewer choices of friends and often feel the need for support.

Fluid in the Body and Temperament by Hippocrates The word “temperament ” and discussions about the types of temperament comes from the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. The theory of temperament was created as a purely medical doctrine, originally designed and serves the purposes of healing. In antiquity medicine it was greatly influenced by philosophy, the main question is – the study of the essence of things and, in particular, the nature of man – was bound to lead to the construction of the concept of physiological functions of the body.

By temperament Hippocrates understood, anatomical and physiological, and psychological characteristics of the individual person. He explained temperament as a behavior, the prevalence in the body of one of the “vital juices”: ?The prevalence of lymph makes a person calm and slow (the element of “water”) – ?The predominance of yellow bile makes person hysterical and cad (the element of “fire”) – ?The prevalence of blood makes a person active and happy (the element of “air”) – ?The predominance of black bile makes a person sad and fearful (the element of “earth”) Hippocrates is introduced such terminology as phlegmatic choleric sanguine melancholic and this terminology also widely used in modern psychology.

It is important to mention the characteristics that were given to types of temperament. Phlegmatic – is a person who has one of the four main types of temperament, characterized by a low level of mental activity, slowness, expressionless facial expressions. It is difficult for phlegmatic to switch from one activity to another and adapt to the new environment. Phlegmatics are prevails calm, smooth mood; their feelings and moods are usually different consistency (Phlegmatic).

Person of choleric temperament can be described as a fast, choppy, with the ability to work with passion, to overcome significant challenges, but at the same time, unbalanced, prone to violent emotional outbursts and mood swings. This temperament is characterized by strong, rapidly emerging feelings clearly reflected in speech, gestures and facial expressions (Choleric). Person of sanguine temperament can be described as moving, relatively easy to experiencing failure and trouble (Sanguine). Man with a melancholic temperament may be described as easily vulnerable, deeply inclined to worry even minor setbacks, but apparently sluggishly reacting to his surroundings (Melancholic).

Features of the Higher Nervous System Through S?mula? on and Decelera? on by Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov – one of the most respected scientists in Russia, physiologist, the founder of the science of higher nervous activity (psychonomy). Ivan Pavlov drew attention to the dependence of the temperament to a nervous system. By studying the three basic parameters of excitation and inhibition (strength – weakness, balance – imbalance, mobility – inertia) and a large number of possible combinations in nature, he established the four most pronounced type of nervous system, three of which – the strong (unrestrained, vibrant, quit), and one – the weak.

Their manifestations in behavior Pavlov put in direct contact with the antique classification of temperament. Strong, balanced, movable type of the nervous system was considered by him as the corresponding temperament of sanguine, strong, balanced, inert – phlegmatic, strong, unbalanced – choleric, the weak – the melancholic (Chapman, Conroy & Sheehy, 2002). The strength of the nervous system in humans shows its high efficiency, a sufficient degree of self-restraint in the expression of feelings, the ability to wait and listen to others, initiative and persistence in achieving goals.

The weakness of the nervous system showed the opposite properties, in other words, fatigue, lack of initiative, suggestibility, tearfulness, fearfulness. Steadiness of nerve processes in the absence of manifest tendency to irritability, mood swings and mood outbreaks. Imbalance – the inability to anticipate and sleep disorders. The mobility of nervous processes is determined by the speed of adjusting to a new environment, intellectual mobility, agility movements and speech articulation, speed of falling asleep and waking up. Extroversion and Introversion by Carl Jung, Diagnosis of Types of Temperament by Eysenck.

Along with the temperament is also important to note the characteristics of the individual. Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist, introduced terms introvert and extrovert (Jung 1989). However common understanding and use of these terms in modern psychology is different from the interpretation of original that Jung comes up with. A large contribution to the modernization of these terms made Eysenck who was a psychologist born in Germany, who spent his professional career in Great Britain (Haggbloom, 2002). This is how these terms are presented in modern psychology:

Extrovert – a person whose life energy is focused, primarily, on contact with the environment, whether it is the human world, the world of things, the world of information, or the world of ideas. For extraverted personality override what is happening outside, than the events of his inner world (Extrovert). Introvert – a person, facing inward, putting his inner experiences of the above phenomena of the world. For example: a man facing inward, putting their inner experiences of the above phenomena of the world (Introversion) It is important to mention that Eysenck developed the personality test – EPI, which is helping to identify the temperament type.

The procedure of the test is very simple, respondents are asked to answer 57 questions, possible answers, only two “yes” or “no” questions aimed at identifying the normal way of behavior. The following chart is showing the final proses of identification of the type of temperament and at the same time individual characteristics that were discussed above. Socially-psychological Factors The concept and components of socializa? on Socialization – a collection of all the social processes by which the individual learns and plays a certain system of knowledge, norms and values, allowing him or her to function as a full member of society (Socialization).

Socialization includes not only conscious, controlled, targeted exposure, but also natural, spontaneous processes, somehow influence the formation of personality. Based on this, the process of socialization can be conventionally represented as a set of four components: ?Primary socialization ?Secondary socialization ?Anticipatory socialization ?Resocialization Leadership theorie Leadership – one of the manifestations of power. Mandatory requirement of leadership – the possession of power in specific formal and informal organizations of different levels and scale. In the theory of leadership are four approaches:

1) from the position of personal qualities; 2) behavioral; 3) situational; 4) leadership on the basis of emotional intelligence. Approach from the position of personal qualities According to the theory theories of personality traits or theory of great people, outstanding leaders have a certain set of personality traits, such as intelligence, bright appearance, common sense, initiative, self-confidence, reliability, activity, etc. However, studies have shown that leaders differed in quality and dedicated in different ways manifest themselves depending on the situation. Approach behavioral.

Proponents of the behavioral approach was considered that the effectiveness of a leader is determined by the style of leadership, that is, usual demeanor manager to subordinates in order to influence them and help to achieve the goals. Kurt Lewin Tsadek – German and then American psychologist whose ideas had a great influence on American social psychology, and many other schools and trends, especially in the cultural development of the theory of Lev Vygotsky and researchers “Vygotsky’s circle” (Altrichter & Gstettner, 1993). The first describes the three leadership styles (leader behavior): authoritarian, democratic, liberal.

?Authoritarian leadership is characterized by a high degree of personal power of the leader: he is the one who determines the strategy of the group, no powers not delegated to the group. ?Democratic leadership is characterized by the separation of powers and the participation of workers in management; responsibility is not concentrated and distributed. ?Liberal leadership is characterized by a minimal participation of the head; the group has the freedom to make independent decisions. In his study, Levine found that authoritarian leadership sought doing more work than democratic.

However, the low motivation, less originality, less friendliness in groups, no group thinking, much more aggressiveness displayed by both, the supervisor and the other members of the group, most of repressed anxiety and at the same time more dependent and submissive behavior. Compared to the democratic, with a liberal management amount of work is reduced, the quality decreases and according to the surveys democratic leaders are more preferred. The Situational Approach Reflects the fact that the effectiveness of a leader not only affect personality and leadership style, but also a variety of situational factors, such as the needs and personality of subordinates, the nature of the job, the influence of the environment, availability of the information for the leader.

In other words, the head, the leader must be able to behave differently in different situations. This approach was the most effective in terms of management practices. It represents four situational models: – Situational leadership model Fiedler; – Approach Mitchell House and the “path–goal theory” – Situational leadership theory by Hersey and Blanchard; – Decision model by Yettona Vroom. Leadership on the Basis of Emotional Intelligence.

This concept is very young, it was designed D. Goulmanom, a professor of the University of Chicago in 1980-90. 20th century. According to this concept, effective leadership means managing the emotions of others. Leader with high emotional intelligence, has the ability to recognize their own feelings and the feelings of others, as well as manage them. Feral Child Feral children – human children who grow up in conditions of extreme social isolation – without contact with people from an early age and have almost no care and love from another person, had no experience in social behavior and communication.

Such children abandoned by parents, brought up by animals or live in isolation (Bettelheim, 1959). The example of this can be the case of Genie. Genie – feral girl, found in American in 1970. She spent the first 12 years of his life in a locked room, staying almost complete social isolation. The case has generated considerable interest among psychologists, linguists and other scholars (Cecil, 2004). This girl made a huge progress, hoverer she wasn’t able to became complete member of society. Social roles. Types and Characteris? cs Social role – is a behavior expected from someone who has a certain social status (Social Roles).

The other definition is saying that: Social roles – is a set of requirements for the individual be the society and the actions which the person must perform according to the occupied position in the social system. Each person can have multiple roles (McLeod, S. A. 2008) The status of women for example is a little bit different from men, and therefore women are expected to have a different behavior then men. Each individual can have a large number of roles, and society most of the time is expecting this person to perform them according to the status.

In this sense, the status and role – they are two sides of the same phenomenon: where the status is a set of rights, privileges and responsibilities and the role is technically a set of actions within the confines of this bundle of rights and responsibilities. The social role includes: ?role expectations (of expectations) ?performing that role (the game) Social roles can be institutionalized and conventional. ?Institutionalized: the institution of marriage, the family (social role of mother, daughter, wife) ?

Conventional: accepted in agreement (the person may refuse to take them) Main characteristics of the social role The main characteristics of social role are isolated by American sociologist, the head of the school of structural functionalism, one of the founders of modern theoretical sociology and social anthropology Talcott Parsons(Biography of Talcott Parsons). He suggested the following four characteristics of any role: ?According to the scale. Part roles can be strictly limited, while another – blurred. ?According to the method of preparation. Roles are divided into prescribed and won (alos referred to is achieved). ?

According to the degree of formalization. Activities may take place in a strictly prescribed limits and arbitrary. ?By the type of motivation. As motivation can be a personal profit, public benefit, etc. Conclusion Human is a bio-psycho-social. Studies show that the basis of human behavior and its place in society largely determine their physiological characteristics, such as body type, features the higher nervous function, etc. Psychological characteristics are determined by anatomical and physiological preconditions, which later determined by the particular individual. However only physiological characteristics is not sufficient for the formation of a full-fledged member of society.

Only alive communication in human society can make a person out of Homo sapiens. Examples of this are the Feral Children, social learning is impossible without human society and communication. However the full development of the individual in society is not limited to basic social skills. Socialization – a collection of all the social processes by which the individual learns and plays a certain system of knowledge, norms and values, allowing him or her to function as a full member of society (Socialization). One of the exceptional social skills is leadership. In such a way the person is presenting individual and social characteristics at the same time.Appendix: The link for Eysenck’s EPI test on the type of temperament http://similarminds. com/eysenck. html.

References Altrichter, H. , & Gstettner, P. (1993). Educational action research . (1st ed. , pp. 329-360). Bettelheim, B. (1959). Feral children and autistic children. (5th ed. , Vol. 64, pp. 455-467). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Biography of Talcott Parsons. Accessed from http://www. talcottparsons. com/biography Cecil, R. (2004). concise encyclopedia of special education : A reference for the education of the handicapped and other exceptional children and adults.

(2nd ed. , pp. 428-429). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Cerebrotonia In English Collins Dictionary. London: HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved from http://www. collinsdictionary. co m/english-thesaurus Chapman, A. J. , Conroy , W. , & Sheehy , N. (2002). Biographical dictionary of psychology. (1st ed. ). Oxford: Routledge. Choleric. (n. d. ). Merriam-Webster. com. Retrieved from http://www. merriam- webster. com/dictionary/choleric Extrovert. (n. d. ). Dictionary and thesaurus. Retrieved from http://psychology. about. com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/jungprofile. htm Geddes, L. (1911). Person. (pp. 173-179).

New York: Robert Appleton Company. Haggbloom, S. J. (2002). The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century.. (6th ed. , pp. 139 – 152). Introversion. (n. d. ). Dictionary and thesaurus. Retrieved from http://psychology. about. com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/jungprofile. htm Jung, C. G. (1989). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Rev. ed. , C. Winston & R. Winston, Trans. A. Jaffe, Ed. New York: Random House, Inc. K Dictionaries Ltd. (2009). Dictionary of the english language. (4th ed. ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from http://www. thefreedictionary. com/cyclothymic Krauskopf, C. J.

& Saunders, D. R, (1994) Personality and Ability: The Personality Assessment System. University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland. McKeown, C. , & Holmes, A. (2009). Collins english dictionary. (10th ed. ). Glasgow: Complete & Unabridged. Retrieved from http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/schizothymia McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Roles and Social Norms – Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www. simplypsychology. org/social-roles. html Melancholic. (n. d. ). Dictionary. com Unabridged. Retrieved from Dictionary. com website: http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/melancholic Phlegmatic. (n. d. ).

Merriam-Webster. com. Retrieved from http://www. merriam- webster. com/dictionary/phlegmatic Princeton University. (2013, 11 4). Schizothymia. Retrieved from http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/schizothymia . Sanguine. (n. d. ). Dictionary. com Unabridged. Retrieved from Dictionary. com website: http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/sanguine Social Roles. (n. d. ). Psychology glossary. Retrieved from http://www. alleydog. com/glossary/definition. php? term=Social Roles Socialization. (2013). In Encyclop? dia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/551773/socialization.

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