Objectives: the purpose of the study was to assess the factors affecting prevalence of self- medication practices using commercial drugs of the Rural Filipino Family including its correlation and who among them experienced non therapeutic effect. Methods: This study was a descriptive cross- sectional question based study. The study was conducted in 3 rural, agricultural lands, municipality in three different provinces wherein 2 municipalities were accomplished around the Region 2 while the remaining one was conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region.
The 300 respondents’ of the study was family in a rural community which was randomly selected. A questionnaire was approved by the research protocols and was given to the family and the medical-decision- giver completed the said questionnaire with the assistance of the data gathering personnel. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences or SPSS version 13. 0. Descriptive data were expressed as percentage, frequency and mean. Pearson- r was utilized in assessing correlation the factors.
Results: Almost all of the respondents practices self-medication 90. 3% within the family, the respondent’s profile, wherein majority of them who accomplished the semi- constructed and assisted questionnaire were females, predominantly were mothers, with a mean age of 39 years, and primarily of them were nuclear type of family composing an average family members of 5 people, most of them finished a college degree, and most of the family earned a range of ? 1001- ?
P5000 with a mean of ? 4,476,and majority was enrolled in a health insurance.the most commonly used medication were paracetamol which rank first followed by Ibuprofen, both commercial drugs falls under the classification of analgesics and or antipyretic while the third one was amoxicillin an antibiotics.
On the aspect of the accuracy of medication usage, paracetamol, Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost correctly used. On the other hand, most of the commercial medications incorrectly used were antibiotics wherein amoxicillin was the leading medication that was wrongly used then cotrimoxazole and cephalexin.
Fever is the most common illnesses prompted the family to self- medicate, followed by headache and then cough and colds. The families’ understanding and compliance to the commercial drugs utilized in self-medication was good, and majority were aware to its indication but not with the non- therapeutic effects. Almost perceived their health as most important and their current health status were in good term. Most of the family intervened thru self- medication in times of illness occurrence rather than attending health facilities or using herbal preparations. Majority did not experience such non- therapeutic effects.
While the minority who experienced non- therapeutic reactions, predominantly both dizziness and epigastric pain leading manifestation felt by the family then followed by the occurrence of rash or itchiness and ringing of ears. The study revealed that there was a negative correlation between the prevalence of self-medication with prevalence of adverse effect. Conclusion: In this study, the researchers concluded that self-medication is safe practice of self- care as the occurrence of adverse effect is low and negatively correlated to the prevalence of self- medication.
However, the revealed number of family experienced adverse effect as they practiced self- medication must not be ignored for the public health safety will be at risk and in jeopardy. Recommendation: There must be further study utilizing a standardized gathering tool to facilitate more efficient result. Then, there must be further study to be conduct to further assess the community, to increase their knowledge about the different adverse effect of such medication that they take without the guidance of the medical team.
Moreover, Deductive community intervention addressing the erroneous usage of medications to decrease the inappropriate usage of medication drugs in self- medication practices such as appropriate health awareness.
Furthermore, a law or ordinance must be established to guide the drug retailers protect the vulnerable people. INTRODUCTION Background of the Study In 1960’s, Self-care and self- medication was regarded as an unnecessary and bad practice while the traditional or paternalistic will be the solely ruling treatment of the patient illness and it was regarded as safe and responsible practice.
Moreover, the paternalistic approach makes the patient invisible towards his own wellness for he will be dependent on his doctors. But, as medical advancement of the medical discoveries, including technologies, and development including the enhancement of health professions, the paternalistic approach changes into a patient centered and disease prevention health model which self-care and self-medication of nonprescription also known as over- the – counter drugs was included, approved and advocated (The Story of Self-medication and Self Medication, 2006).
In addition, self-medication was regarded as an important pillar of primary health care (Pushpa, R. , et. al. 2012) and a common health-seeking behavior ( Yi Wen, F. , et. al. , 2011), which World Self Medication Industry (WSMI) a non-government organization with World Health Organization (WHO) affirms saying that self- medication as a key component of self- care. William Osler once said “a desire to take medicine is perhaps the great feature which distinguishes man from animals”.
The quoted word may justify a person to take medication without any advice by appropriate health allied such as Doctor, Pharmacist and Nurses this practice is called Self Medication (Phalke V. D. , et. al. , 2003). This occurrence of self- medication practices was due to various factors. These contributing factors were perceived of signs and symptoms as minor or mild or it was the same with the previous illnesses and treated by the same medications, expensive health facility, availability of Health Care Personnel, fear of the crowd in the clinic, readily availability and s of medication without prescription (Adualem, T., et. al. , 2004; Verma, R. K. , et. al. , 2010; Worku, S. , et. al, 2006).
A study showed that self- medication practices were rampantly increasing especially to economically deprived countries wherein most episodes of illness are treated through the said practice (Geissier, P. W. , et. al. 2000). Based from the literatures the most common used medication were ranging from analgesics, anti-microbiasl, and anti-pyretics (Shankar, P. R. , et. al. , 2002; Verma, R. K. , et. al. , 2010; Worku, S. , et. al, 2006; Sweileh,W.M. ,et. al, 2004).
While, the most common illnesses that prompted to practice self- medication were fever, pain, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal illnesses and skin diseases (Worku, S. , et. al, 2006). Moreover, a significant evidence of approval to WSMI advocacy in the Philippines is the establishment and development of Botika ng Barangay (BnB) in the different communities as a program of the Department of Health (DOH) that sells Bureau of Foods and Drugs (BFAD) approved over-the-counter medicines.
Two well-known antibiotics namely Amoxicillin and Cotrimoxazole, essential drugs (vitamins and minerals), medication for chronic disease such as hypertension, diabetes and asthma, making medications easily, readily accessible to far-flung communities as self-medication is also included as a primary health care activity.
This project goal to promote equal health services guaranteeing the availability and accessibility of cost effective and safe drugs especially to those indigent constituents as a Presidential Mandate in year 2001 of Pharma 50 (Cuevas, F., et. , al. ,Public Health Nursing in the Philippines 10th edition 2007,Publications Committee, National League of the Philippine Government Nurses, Incorporated) .
However, lot of studies showed that a lot of people practicing self- medication were not aware to the other effects the drug may give aside from the therapeutic effect of the medication. In addition, a study found out that people tend to mix two the same indication of medication without knowing it was just the same.
(Verma, R., et. al. , 2010) Although practicing self- medication had been advocated and has been reported to have several benefits it has been associated with many risks including the lack of appropriate instruction from physicians, increase risk of adverse drug interaction, drug resistance, misdiagnosed and most distressing is an accidental death (Al- Azzam, S. I. , et. al. , 2007). “Lahat ng gamot effective pero buntis ka,safe ba? ”. “Lahat ng gamot effective, eh walang laman ang tiyan mo, safe ba?
” –from Paracetamol Commercial The quoted advertisement pointing out that every medication has its due to self- medication person may forget that every medication a person takes in has a component that might interact with other component from other substances such as medication or foods, aside from its therapeutic effects, this drugs may cause other effects which may produce side effects or even the detrimental adverse effects which puts a person at risk when drugs taken inappropriately. Statement of the Problem.
A lot of studies were done in self- medication however there no published studies with regards to self- medication practices in a community which focused group or the source of data is family and the factors contributing to practice self- medication in using commercial drugs of Rural Filipino Family. In general, the purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of self- medication in using commercial drugs practices of the Rural Filipino Family and family who experienced adverse effect. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following research question: 1.
What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 2. 1. Age 2. 2. Sex 2. 3. Position in the family 2. 4. Type of family 2. 5. Number of family members 2. 6. Educational attainment 2. 7. Socio-economic status 2. 8. 1. Estimated monthly gross family income 2. 8. Health Insurance 2. What is the prevalence of Rural Filipino Family practicing self- medication using commercial drugs in terms of: 3. 9. 2. Commonly used medicines 3. 9. 3. Accuracy of medication usage 3. 9. 4. Illnesses that prompted the family to practice self-medication 3.
What is the medication knowledge of the family who practice self- medication using commercial drugs which includes the understanding and compliance of the medication instructions, awareness of both drugs indication and non- therapeutic effects? 4. What is the health belief an the experienced prior to illness? 5. What are the experienced non- therapeutic effects of the family as they practice self- medication using commercial drugs taken without prescription? 6. What is the relationship of the contributing factors : 7. 9. 5. Respondents profile;
7. 9. 6. medication knowledge; 7. 9. 7. health belief and experience of prior illness; 7. 9. 8. and prevalence of experienced adverse effect; with the prevalence of Self- medication practices in using commercial drugs of Rural Filipino Family? Significance of Study This study therefore will result to the enhancement of Nursing Profession regarding with the self- medication practices of the rural Filipino families by assessing the incidence which will reveal the real situation of rural Filipino families practicing self- medication.
In addition, through this study it will disclose the occurrence of adverse effects experience by the family practicing self- medication which usually unreported.
The current study will not only add to the current existing of knowledge but further advance the field by discussing and knowing the relationship of the factors that affecting the prevalence of self- medication practices of the family and understanding these contributing factors will lead health practitioners to address the problem accordingly, preventing the occurrence of adverse effects that can risk the health status of the community people through educational awareness.
Moreover, researcher believe that trough the study health practitioner will be aware of the weak points of inappropriate usage of the over-the- counter drugs which they can established interventions to eradicate inappropriate used or correct the wrong practice. Also it will be used to assess the policies available to control medication around the country. Related Literature Socio-Economic Status:
Based from the study made by Andualem, T. (2004) declaring that the self- medication occurs in a wide range of ages around the globe, which includes students ranging from high school to tertiary levels, non- medical or medical students, together with professionals, urban or rural community, even lactating mothers and adolescence were seen that prevalence in self- medication were high ( Almasdy, D. ,et. al. , 2011; Boateng, D. P. , et. al,2012; Banarfee, I. , et. al. , 2012).
In addition, older adults(more than 65 year old) who leaves alone with low level of education was found more probably to practice self- medication than those who were married and with secondary educational attainment or high school degrees (Lam, P. , 2011). In addition, a study by Zagreb (2001) point out that self- medication in household was a routinely practice since 1977. Aside from that, adolescence was found that the source of drug information was their parents with regard to self- medication as Allebeck, (2005) and Llyod (2005) revealed.
According a lot of literatures that economically depressed countries associate to increase prevalence of self- medication (Abay, S. M. , et. al, 2000;) wherein regulation of the dispensing of medication without prescription were rampant . However, a study says that the more developed the countries the more prevalence of self- medication practices due to the easily availability and accessibility of medications.
With the cross- sectional study by Puspa R.,et. al. (2012) which aims to know the prevalence and predictors of self- medication in both rural and urban as sample finds out that rural community clings to such practice due to unaffordability of the health facility but they have a positive approval with technical competence of the pharmacy staff. While the urban community have preference that medicines should be sold outside the pharmacy making it more accessible. Moreover, Balamurugan, E. , et. al.
(2010) study shows that females and urban people more likely to practice self- medication compare to males and rural community. With the same study, the most reason they cited was lack of time, perceived minor illness and quick relief. With the study of Landers, T. F. , et. al. 2010 shows that women were likely to self- medicate than the other gender. There was also a study saying that the higher the educational acquisition increases the likeness to practice self- medication (Afolabi, O. , et. al. , 2008).
Wherein a study which compared the medical student in first year with third year level student affirms the above statement wherein they found out that third year student more likely to practice self- medication and this occurrence was result from the related knowledge they acquired and continue to gain both in lectures and literatures however the knowledge they have was revealed to be inappropriate knowledge about proper self- medication and including the risk of self- medication ( Verma, R. K. , et. al. , 2010). There was also a study saying that not having health insurance has a relationship to practice self- medication (Widayati, A., 20011)
H1: there is a positive relationship between socio- economic status with the prevalence of self- medication in the Rural Filipino Family. Medication Knowledge: World Self Medication Industry (WSMI) a non-government organization having an official relationship with World Health Organization (WHO) says thru their official journal that people are cautious and careful when they use over-the- counter medication (OTC’s) and not prompted to an over reliance as a result of advertising in addition they claimed that people read labels carefully before taking this non- prescribed medication.
Aside from that, the same organization commended that the readily availability and accessibility of medications even without prescription has helped to educate people to practice self- care. Therefore, independence towards personal healthcare develops and there is an increasing demand by consumers for reliable information. Self- medication is included to the first level of care, under prevention of illness and promotion of health, thus, practicing so will lead a person to an optimum wellness.
However, with the study made by Handu, H. (2006) showed that the knowledge about appropriate self- medication was poor, and the study of Verma, R. (2010) concludes that even professional student have inadequate knowledge about the risk or adverse effect the medication they were taking. With the same result was reveled with the study made by Balamurugan, E. (2011) wherein majority of the respondent (93%) were not aware with other effects of self- medication practices.
While the result was found out in the study of Balbuena, F., (2009) were clients diagnosed with hypertension were not aware to the drug interaction and contraindication of some OTC’s to their health status case for example OTC’s like nasal decongestant was indeed contraindicated to hypertensive for it can cause further vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels that can aggravate high blood pressure.
In addition, 68% of the respondent from the study of Indermiitte, J. (2007) were exposed to potential drug interaction between the OTC’s medication and their prescribed medications.
Aside from that, there was a study reveals that parents was the source of medication knowledge b adolescence were their parents wherein the misuse and misconception of parents towards self- medication were adopted b their children (Allebeck, 2005). Another study exposed that (Andualem, T. 2004), even lactating or pregnant mothers practice self- medication without an advised of physician wherein their case were delicate for there were a various medication which can cross the placenta or the breast milk which can cause harm or toward effect towards the fetal development or infant.
A lot of study exposes that, antibiotics used were rampant without an advised by physicians, inappropriate used and non- adherence to the specific dosage, length and frequency of the medication were done, wherein this can lead to drug resistance and risk for occurrence of adverse effects (Haaijer, 2005; Awad, et. al. , 2005; Widayati, 2011;Basco, 2004). Sarahroodi(2000), disclosed that there is an inappropriate information about analgesic usage. H2: Low medication knowledge of rural Filipino family is more likely to practice self-medication.
Health belief and Experienced of prior illness: Majority of the study gathered were saying that the most cited common reason of adhering to self- medication was the perceived signs and symptoms as minor and they experienced it before and were relief with the same medication. However, the signs and symptoms such pain, fever, coughs and flu alike symptoms which prompted them to self- medication can be misdiagnosed for these set of signs and symptoms were alike to the
manifestation of major diseases such as cancer. But, if these signs and symptoms will not be controlled it may lead to further illnesses. The WSMI organization also says that person consulted first to health care giver when they experienced it for the first time and if they self- medicated yet the symptoms persisted. H3: health belief and experienced prior illness has a positive relationship with prevalence of self- medication practice of rural Filipino Family.
Theoretical Framework The Self Care Deficit theory of Dorothea Orem includes the theory of self – care which “comprises the practice of activities that nurturing and mature persons initials and performs with in time frames, on their own behalf of interest of maintaining life, healthful functioning , continuing person with development and well- being through meeting known requisites for functional and developmental regulation”.
Moreover, one of her Universal Self Care Requisites says “prevention of hazards to human life, human functioning and human well-being”. The theory advocates independence of person to achieve its own well- being thru self- care. Research Paradigm Contributing Factors: * Socio- economic Status * Medication knowledge * Health belief and experienced of prior illness * Prevalence of Adverse Effect Prevalence of Self Medication Contributing Factors: * Socio- economic Status.
* Medication knowledge * Health belief and experienced of prior illness * Prevalence of Adverse Effect Prevalence of Self Medication Independent Variable Dependent Variables Methods This study was a descriptive cross- sectional question based study. The study was conducted in 3 rural agricultural lands, municipality of three different provinces wherein 2 municipalities were accomplished around the region while the remaining one was conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region.
The 300 respondents of the study was family in a rural community was randomly selected obtained thru systematic sampling. A semi-constructed questionnaire needed to gather necessary data was approved by the research protocols. After a courtesy measures done and given permission from municipal mayors and to specific barangay captains to do the study, the questionnaire was given to the family and their medical-decision- giver as representative of the family completed the said questionnaire with the assistance of a researcher.
Respondents were assured that all of the gathered data were treated with utmost confidentiality. The semi-structured questionnaire was given to a member of the family, probably the medical- decision maker of the family. The questionnaire measured the respondent’s profile which includes the respondents’ age, sex, position in the family, educational attainment, number of members, estimated gross family monthly income and presence of health insurance was collected.
The medication knowledge was measured assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire it involved the family knowledge about the commercial medications they used in practicing self- medications in which includes drugs indication, therapeutic effect, side effects, adverse effect, contraindication , if they easily understand when to take it including its suggested frequency. The Health belief and experienced prior illness was measured through a semi-structured questionnaire to determine how the family perceives and manages their health, and to assess the compliance with current and past nursing and medical recommendation.
Prevalence of Self- medication Using Commercial Drugs was the percentage that the rural Filipino family practicing self –medication using commercial drugs, including the most commonly used medications and the common illnesses that prompted the family to practice self- medication and it also assessed the percentage of commercial medications used, and the medication usage of the family if they used commercial medication indication correctly or not. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences or SPSS version 13. 0. Descriptive data were expressed as percentage, frequency and mean.
Pearson- r was utilized in assessing correlation of the contributing factors to the prevalence of self-medication using commercial drugs. Results Table 1: The Respondents Profile Profile| Frequency| Percent| Age| | | 18-27| 75| 25. 0| 28- 37| 69| 23. 0| 38-47| 65| 21. 7| 48-57| 55| 18. 3| 58-67| 26| 8. 7| 68-77| 8| 2. 7| 78-87| 2| . 7| Mean Age= 39 years old| | | Sex| | | Male| 83| 27. 7| Female| 217| 72. 3| Position in the family| | | Father| 61| 20. 3| Mother| 181| 60. 3| First Child| 20| 6. 7| Second Child| 13| 4. 3| Third Child| 7| 2. 3| Grandmother| 3| 1. 0| Grandfather| 2| . 7| 4th Child| 6| 2.
0| 5th Child| 2| . 7| 6th Child| 1| . 3| 7th Child| 1| . 3| Daughter In Law| 1| . 3| 9th Child| 1| . 3| 10th Child| 1| . 3| Type Of Family| | Nuclear| 193| 64. 3| Extended| 106| 35. 3| Number Of Family Members| | | 1 – 5| 185| 61. 7| 6- 10| 114| 38. 0| 11- 15| 1| . 3| Average No. in the Family= 5 (5. 14)| | | Educational Attainment| | | Elementary Level| 24| 8. 0| Elementary Graduate| 41| 13. 7| High School Level| 50| 16. 7| High School Graduate| 56| 18. 7| Vocational Graduate| 5| 1. 7| College Level| 40| 13. 3| College Graduate| 79| 26. 3| Masters Level| 3| 1. 0| Doctorate Level| 1| . 3|
Estimated Gross Monthly Family Income| | | <? 1000| 55| 18. 3| ?1001- ? P5000| 154| 51. 3| ?5001- ? 10,000| 43| 14. 3| ?10,001- ? 15,000| 28| 9. 3| ?15,001- ? 20,000| 7| 2. 3| >? 20000| 13| 4. 3| Mean Gross Monthly Family Income = | ? 4,476. 11| | Member of Health Insurance| | | Member| 199| 66. 3| Non- member| 101| 33. 7| Table 1 shows the respondent’s profile, wherein majority of them who accomplished the semi- constructed and assisted questionnaire were females, predominantly were mothers, with a mean age of 39 years, and primarily of them were nuclear type of family composing an average family members of 5 people.
In the aspect of educational attainment, most of them finished a college degree, and most of the family earned a range of ? 1001- ? P5000 with a mean estimated gross monthly family income amounting of ? 4,476. 11. And majority was enrolled in a health insurance. Table 2. Prevalence of Rural Filipino Family Practicing Self-Medication Using Commercial Drugs Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage| Practicing Self- Medication| 271| 90. 3| Not practicing| 29| 9. 7| Total| 300| 100. 0| Table 2 reveals the prevalence of rural Filipino family practicing self-medication using commercial drugs.
And found out that almost of them practices Self- medication using commercial drugs due to it easy accessibility and readily availability in the community as evidence by Pharmaceutical establishment including the DOH program instituted Botika ng Barangay to address equity of health service to its constituents were around the community. Table 3. Frequency of Commonly Used Commercial Medications and Accuracy of Commercial Medication Usage Classification| Wrong Usage| Correct Usage| Total| Analgesics/antipyretic| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| Paracetamol| 34| 11.
3| 5| 235| 78. 3| 1| 269| 89. 7| 1| Aspirin| 1| . 3| 23| 7| 2. 3| 19| 8| 2. 7| 25| Mefenamic acid| 25| 8. 3| 8| 26| 8. 7| 11| 51| 17. 0| 13| Ibuprofen| 21| 7. 0| 9| 169| 56. 3| 2| 190| 63. 3| 2| Diclofenac| 29| 9. 7| 7| 114| 38. 0| 5| 143| 47. 7| 6| Naproxen| 9| 3. 0| 15| 52| 17. 3| 6| 61| 20. 3| 12| Antacids/anti ulcers| | AlMg| 30| 10. 0| 6| 52| 17. 3| 6| 82| 27. 3| 9| Ranitidine| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27| Anti-asthma| | Salbutamol| 25| 8. 3| 8| 52| 17. 3| 12| 77| 25. 7| 10| Antibiotic| | Penicillin| 5| 1. 7| 19| 5| 1. 7| 21| 10| 3. 3| 23| Ampicillin| 2| .
7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27| Cloxacillin| 1| . 3| 23| 12| 4. 0| 16| 13| 4. 3| 22| Chloramphenicol| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28| Amoxicillin| 70| 23. 3| 1| 115| 38. 3| 4| 185| 61. 7| 3| Cotrimoxazole| 54| 18. 0| 2| 30| 10. 0| 10| 84| 28. 0| 8| Cefalexin| 40| 13. 3| 3| 51| 17. 0| 7| 91| 30. 3| 7| Metronidazole| 15| 5. 0| 12| 10| 3. 3| 17| 25| 8. 3| 19| Erythromycin| 8| 2. 7| 16| 13| 4. 3| 15| 21| 7. 0| 20| Antihistamine| | Diphenhydramine| 7| 2. 3| 17| 32| 10. 7| 9| 39| 13. 0| 16| Chlorphenamine| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| | 1| . 3| 28| Anti-emetic| | Metoclopramide| 4| 1.
3| 20| 5| 1. 7| 21| 9| 3. 0| 24| Anti-hypertensive| | Metoprolol| 1| . 3| 23| 25| 8. 3| 22| 26| 8. 7| 18| Amlodipine| 0| 0| | 8| 2. 7| | 8| 2. 7| 26| Anti-malarial| | chloroquine| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| 22| 1| . 3| 28| Anti-motility| | Loperamide| 16| 5. 3| 11| 161| 53. 7| 3| 177| 59. 0| 4| Anti-spasmodic| | Dicycloverine| 19| 6. 3| 10| 13| 4. 3| 15| 32| 10. 7| 17| HNBB| 19| 6. 3| 10| 23| 7. 7| 13| 42| 14. 0| 15| Anti-vertigo| | Cinnarizine| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28| Bonamine| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28| Corticosteroid| | Costicosteroids| 2| .
7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27| Prednisone| 6| 2| 18| 0| 0| | 6| 2| 26| Dexamethasone| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27| Cough and colds preparation| | PPA| 54| 18| 2| 30| 10| 10| 84| 72| 8| Decolgen| 1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27| Bioflu| 11| 3. 7| 14| 7| 2. 3| 19| 18| 6. 0| 21| Tuseran | 1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27| Robitussin G. | 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28| Carbocisteine| 38| 12. 7| 4| 14| 38| 14| 152| 50. 7| 5| Ambroxol | 1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27| Laxatives| | Bisacodyl | 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28| Dulcolax| 3| 1| 20| 6| 2| 20| 9| 3| 27|
Others| | Contraceptive pills| 6| 2| 19| 39| 13| 8| 45| 15| 14| Kidney care| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28| Chinese pills| 13| 4. 3| 13| 0| 0| | 13| 4. 3| 22| Salonpas| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28| Table 3 represents the Frequency of Commonly Used Commercial Medications and the Accuracy of Commercial Medication Usage wherein the most commonly used medication were paracetamol which rank first followed by Ibuprofen, both commercial drugs falls under the classification of analgesics and or antipyretic while the third one was amoxicillin an antibiotics.
On the aspect of the accuracy of medication usage, paracetamol, Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost correctly used. On the other hand, most of the commercial medications incorrectly used were antibiotics wherein amoxicillin was the leading medication that was wrongly used then cotrimoxazole and cephalexin. The antipyretic/ analgesics classification leads due to its indications were for the common and simple symptoms aside from its rampant availability in the community for this commercial drugs were enlisted to the approved over- the – counter drugs or also preferred as non- prescription medications.
However, the most incorrect usage medication were antibiotics due to the fact that this class of drugs needs an advice and guidance of medical team on its proper utilization. Table 4. Common Illnesses that prompted the family to practice self-medication Illnesses| Frequency| Percent| Rank| Fever| 244| 81. 3| 1| Stomach ache| 163| 54. 3| 6| Diarrhea| 177| 59. 0| 5| Cough and Colds| 213| 71. 0| 3| Toothache| 37| 12. 3| 14| Dysmenorrhea| 150| 16. 7| 12| Difficulty/painful urination| 52| 17. 3| 11|
Blurring of vision| 81| 27. 0| 8| Vomiting | 40| 13. 3| 13| Headache| 220| 73. 3| 2| Body malaise| 189| 63. 0| 4| Dizziness| 57| 19. 0| 10| Skin Disease| 122| 40. 7| 7| Constipation| 22| 7. 3| 15| Difficulty in sleeping| 11| 3. 7| 17| Nape pain| 21| 7. 0| 16| Wounds| 5| 1. 7| 18| Body pain| 80| 26. 7| 9| Joint pain| 1| . 3| 20| Malarial s/sx| 2| . 7| 19| Table 4 indicates the common illnesses prompted the family to self- medicate, in which fever was the main illness, followed by headache and cough and colds.
These illnesses were perceived by the family as a minor and common illness occurrence which primary care as self-medications can alleviate it accordingly. Table 5: Medication Knowledge in Using Commercial Drugs in Practicing Self- Medication Understanding and Compliance to Medication Instructions| Frequency| Percentage| Excellent (5)| 24| 8. 9| Very Good (4-4. 9)Good (3-3. 9)Fair (2-2. 9)Poor (1-1. 9)Total Mean =3. 54| 76109567271| 2839. 920. 72. 5100. 0| Indication of Commercial Medications| | | AwareNot AwareTotal | 3268271| 1. 198. 9100. 0| Non- Therapeutic Effects of Commercial Medications| | |
AwareNot AwareTotal | 105166271| 3961100. 0| The table 5 represents the family medication knowledge in using commercial medication it involves the understanding of the medication and compliance to the instructions in which majority of them have a good understanding and compliance. In aspect of awareness to the commercial drugs indication most of them knows about the use of such commercial drugs in practicing self- medication on the contrary the non- awareness of the no therapeutic effects of commercial drugs were predominant as the study revealed.
Table 6: Health Belief and Experience Prior to Illness Importance of Health | Frequency| Percentage| Most Important| 225| 75| Very importantImportantFairly importantNot important| 502311| 16. 77. 7. 3. 3| Total| 300| 100. 0| Perceived Status of their Health| | | Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Total | 4610114490300| 15. 333. 748. 03. 00100. 0| Interventions done in case of Illness occurrence| | | Immediate medical attentionPractices Self- medicationPrepare for Herbal decoctions| 7818636| 266212| Total| 300| 100|.
Table 6 discloses the health belief and experience prior to illness, wherein majority perceived health as the most important in their family and for the most their health was is good aspect. Moreover, in times that a member in the family got ill most of them intervened thru self- medication using commercially drugs rather going in health facilities or utilization of available herbal decoctions or other herbal preparations. Table 7: Prevalence of.