Schizophrenia genetic

To some extent Schizophrenia is genetic. It’s of the understanding that it’s inherited albeit not being created by a single gene but the genes inhabit to be influential. Throughout continuous studies it has been recognised that Schizophrenia is confidently inheritable, one study being carried out by Gottesman (1991). Up until 1978, theoretically it was known as a functional psychosis, conformably to Gershon & Reider (1992) due to the evelopment of the CT scan, it was used to research the brains of inveterate Schizophrenias (by Johnstone et al. at the Clinical Research Centre in Middlesex, England).

This exhibited an enhanced size of the lateral cerebral ventricles (the fluid spaces in between the brain) and additional x-ray attestation confirmed less brain tissue (specifically in the medical temporal lobe), this confirmed by technology. Also showing a weakened blood flow in the frontal coretex, signifying decreased neuronal activity and post-mortems have signified that specific groups on neurons correlated in an abnormal way or entangled differently compared to non-schizophrenics.

There are conclusions that there is a surplus neurotransmitter dopamine, but this evidence is inconclusive (Lavender 2000). There are no differences in the dopamine levels amidst drug free schizophrenics and normal individuals, neither is there any averment of increased levels of other metabolites exhibiting greater dopamine activity. Arguably, the most unambiguous test of genetic influence is the adoption studies, because they show the more refined separation of genetic and environmental factors. The study of the twins has specifically been supplanted in favour of the genetic theory (Joseph, 2003).

A particular study carried out by Heston (1966) carried out a study of 47 adults born to schizophrenic mothers and disjoined within a period of 3 days. As children they had been brought up differently, but not specifically by the mother or her family. There were comparisons of their upbringings and their average age estimated at 36. Where there were signs of the mother being schizophrenic, five of the group were diagnosed and with other theorists became the conclusion that hereditary is a strong factor.

Yet a great deal is still unknown about schizophrenia and the brain, individuals are unsure if there are particular patterns of abnormal ‘wiring’, how the abnormalities congeal in the brain and relate to the known symptoms. There is still the unsure factor that schizophrenia may develop from the growth in the womb. There is an understanding that genes are involved, but the specific connection to brain abnormities is still an unknown entity. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Adults and children of all ages can suffer from this disorder. Internationally identified, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a medical condition of brain dysfunction, in which causes problems prohibiting inappropriate behaviour and dominating impulses, so affecting behaviour, education and other difficulties. These specific areas have a tendency to evolve within early childhood and are more common within boys than girls, a ratio of 9:1. The main symptoms are excessive inattentiveness and/or impulsiveness and hyperactivity.

One of the main criteria with ADHD is that it is often instituted with other conditions, thus symptoms overlapping for example hyperkinesias or Asperger’s Syndrome or dyslexia. If a child does suffer from ADHD there is a tendency that the child will also experience other complex conditions, like excessive oppositionality and conduct disorder, anxiety and depression, learning difficulties, obsessions, co-ordination and speech and language difficulties. These conditions frequently cover the underlying ADHD. Apparently no two children have the same symptoms of ADHD.

They have various core symptoms, complications, environments and IQ’s, with indigenous personality characteristics, these with a varying tendency to the overall system pattern. There is continuous research and discussion into the magnitude that ADHD has a biological cause, which it can be inherited and the amplitude to which it has psychological and social roots. The evidence is strong for a largely biological illustration and is agreeable by many experts, specifically from Australia and North America, unfortunately not necessarily the UK.

Opinion from society and professionals perceive a child’s behaviour is greatly stemming from direct psychological or social problems, in which it is believed to be entangled by poor parenting, environmental factors or teaching (Kewley 1999). Though from the biological description these symptoms would be conjoined to differences in activity of the forebrain, an area located for concentration, time awareness and impulse control. It is believed that there is a malfunction in the brain neurochemical messengers’ that methodize these characteristics (Kewley 1999).

Many different factors have come into consideration; genetic factors, environmental factors, diet and social factors and continuously alternative theories are being propositioned such as the hunter -v- farmer, head injuries and neurodiversity but the research continues until it can establish the cause of ADHD, like many other diseases (Wikipedia accessed on 17th February 2009). Conclusion Primarily, now you have read this report there is a huge indication that after looking at all three of the psychological disorders, that professionals only partly know the causes of each of these illnesses.

Theorists are continuing their research to try and have a clearer understanding on how they develop obvious signs for society and professionals and being able to provide individuals who suffer from these illnesses a specific cause so they truly understand the depths of their illness.


Cayton, H. , Dr Graham, N. , and Dr Warner, J. , (1997). Alzheimer’s at your fingertips. London: Class Publishing. Frith, C. D. (1992). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Hove, UK: Psychology Press as cited in Eysenck, M. , (2000). Psychology A Students Handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.

Schizophrenia is a very serious condition. It is the most common psychosis. Schizophrenia affects attention, thinking, social relationships, motivation and emotion. In a serious episode, most find it hard to understand the “reality” and it challenges our basic understanding about …

Research into schizophrenia shows that there is a major genetic component but the fact that concordance rates between identical twins is never 100% means that there must be environmental contributions.’ Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia. (30 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder …

‘Research into schizophrenia shows that there is a major genetic component but the fact that concordance rates between identical twins is never 100% means that there must be environmental contributions.’ Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia. (30 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder …

In my essay I will attempt to explain schizophrenia and the symptoms of the disorder. I will also describe and evaluate evidence that has been put forward to attempt to explain what causes the disorder. First of all I will …

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