There are several issues surrounding robotic surgery such as historical advancement and framework if the technology, political and lawful influences, economical issues and reflection, psychological contemplations and sociological impacts, moral and virtues inferences, consequences on the environment and technology in its societal framework. I. Description of the Technology/Associated Science a. Explanation of what robotic surgery is b. Science of robotic surgery c. How robotic surgery is performed d. Robotic surgery vs. Human surgery II. The historical development and context of the technology a.
Short timeline 1. Robotic surgery was envisioned to extend the capabilities of surgeons. 2. Creation to assist in overcoming the limitations of current laparoscopic technologies and to expand the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. b. Late 1980’s NASA become interested in this technology C. Early 1990’s teamed up with AMES Research center and Stanford Research Institute d. U. S. Army’s interest in hope of decreasing wartime causalities III. Political and legal influences a. Legal liability for malpractice remains the same as it is for any other surgical procedures. 1.
Litigation can be more complex in the cases of robotic surgery. 2. The litigation would involve claims against the doctor, hospital, and manufacturer. b. FDA (Food & Drug Administration) approval for use in the U. S. 1. Several systems approved; Da Vinci, Zeus, ROBODOC, AESOP and CorPath 200. 2. Applications of robotic surgery are expanding rapidly into many different surgical disciplines. c. Proper credentialing and training requirements. a. U. S. requirements versus international requirements. b. Operating room personnel versus surgeon training. IV. Economic questions and considerations
a. Primary Developer and Manufacturer b. Benefits c. Advancements d. Cost Comparison 1. Are hospitals saving any money or risk for the use of a CPU instead of a doctor? 2. Is there Moral and ethical implications that can defer some patients from using robotics? a. Insurance 1. Will hospitals malpractice insurance cover robotics? 2. Will the consumers insurance cover the procedures and will it cost them more of less for the robotic surgery? 3. V. Psychological considerations and sociological effects a. Description of Psychological Effects 1. How has robotic surgery been accepted in society?
2. How does society feel about it? 3. How is the procedure being sold to the public? a. Description of the Sociological Effects 1. How does the technology change society? 2. What led to the discovery of robotic surgery (Cloning? 3. Who will benefit from the procedures (Patients, surgeons, and companies)? VI. Technology in its Cultural Context/Media Influence a. Cultural Context 1. What cultures accept robotic surgery? 2. What cultures accept robotic surgery? 3. Community/cultural benefits of robotic surgery? b. Media Influence 1. Why Americans are so interested in robotic surgery? 2.
How the media perceives robotic surgery? I. Implications for the environment a. What is Clinical Environment? b. What is affected during surgery? c. What guidelines must be followed? d. What are the potential health risks/threats? e. Advantages f. Disadvantages I. Moral and ethical implications g. Morals 1. Morals defined 2. Difference between morals and ethics 3. What moral concerns are associated with this technology? 4. Consumer Reactions h. Ethics 1. Are any rights violated? 2. Who is held accountable is something goes wrong? 3. What are the limitations? 4. Ethical Dilemmas Increase Scope 5. Human evolution.