Risk Factors for Recent Increased Drug Use in Adolescents

An individual’s family will make a great impact on his decisions. If an adolescent and parent have either a positive or negative relationship, it will be a determining variable to the choices made whether to use drugs or abstain. Parent traditions and values will become that of their child, if they are accepting of drug use. The probable outcome will be a user. Also, if there is an abundance of stress of achievement and success, teens may turn to drugs as a way to cope with it because they feel that they are not capable of reaching their parents expectations.

Relationships whether positive or negative will impact an adolescent’s decision to use drugs. ” Parental influence has also been found to play and important role. Baumrind suggested that although experimentation with alcohol and drugs maybe normative for youth, substance use may be attenuated by parents- adolescent relationship quality” (Farrell, White 1998). If a teen has a positive relationship with his parents who support him, he will be less likely to use drugs. The support will increase his self-esteem, which in turn will not force the child to turn to his peers, who may use, for support.

But, negative relationships, consisting of multiple conflicts, between parents and adolescents will lead to the adolescent’s deviant behavior and drug use. Poor relationships increase chances of teens obtaining these deviant behaviors, and associating with deviant peers. Drugs are a way for teens to cope with this parent-adolescent conflict. Mothers play a much more significant role in the lives of adolescents. Their relationship with their mom has a greater influence that with their father.

“Studies that have examined associating between adolescents abstinence from drug use and maternal affection” (Farrell, White 1998). If a mother displays rejection toward her son or daughter there is a high level of possibility that they will begin problematic drug use. A parent’s ability to moderate the peer influence on their child and put more emphasis on their own norms and values is a protective factor on their teen. On the other hand if parents are influencing poor norms and values and are drug users themselves the risk for use will rise because the adolescent has been thought its ok.

They see their parents doing it, who have the most influence on their behavior. “Parental substance use appears to increase risk of adolescent substance use directly” (Farrell, White 1998). The influence of an adolescent’s parents on their decisions and behaviors are just as great as the influence from their peers on whether the teen will or will not begin drug usage. If an unfavorable parent- adolescent relationship is present it can be a determining factor on whether one will become a user or not.

“Parent- adolescent relationships were found to affect an adolescents personality, influencing peer selection, which in turn has an impact on drug use” (Bhattacharya 1998) If there is a strong maternal relationship the risk for usage will decrease significantly. Parents should also take the president to moderate the influence of peers on their child. If they’re own influence of good, moral values are placed upon them, and then the teen will follow them and not commence in using. Biological Variables: Ethnicity An adolescent’s ethnicity can effect whether he/ she will become a drug user.

If there is not a strong sense of ethnic identity present, conflict between generations, which have different levels of intensity, put on their ethnicity, maybe lead second-generation adolescents to using drugs. A sense of fitting into the dominant culture and assimilating to the norms presented to them is important to adolescents. But, if to parents the sense of ethnic unity is number one in their eyes it may cause conflict and weakened family bonds. “The cultural distance between host and original countries further intensifies the stress of acculturation and adaptation.

This can lead to family conflict and communication deficits, leading to alienation between parent and children, which, in turn, often manifests itself in delinquency and drug use. “(Bhattacharya 1998) The possibility for loss of ethnic identity is devastating for some parents, and they put great amounts of pressure on their children to support that. When adolescents try to deviate from their parent’s ethnical norms, the conflict that occurs between them is lessened by the adolescents drug use. In a situation where ethnicity is not so influential on ones life, it can still make a difference in the likelihood of drug use.

In a study it was confirmed that Caucasians were at a higher risk than African Americans for drug use in teens (Kilpatrick 2000). For many Caucasian and African Americans, their ethnicity isn’t as important as someone from a foreign ethnicity, who still lives by their native morals. African Americans are at a reduced risk relative to Caucasians. Gender Differences between male and female genders can make a difference in the risk for drug use. Males have been found to be more prone to alcohol dependence and marijuana use (Kilpatrick 2000).

They are at a much greater risk than females are for drug use. Males are “less concerned about drugs ill effects” (Holmes 1996). Although the increase in drug use is present in both genders, it has been more prevalent in males than females. Victimization: Victimization of adolescents is a variable that may increase the risk of future drug use. Victimization of an adolescent is either sexual or physical assault, violence, such as being shot, stabbed, mugged, robbed or being threatened with a weapon or witnessing any of those acts (Kilpatrick 2000).

Violence plays a role in increased risk to drug uses because the substance use is a strategy to cope with the stress produced by the violent acts. It is a dysfunctional way of coping, but for some it may be all that seems to work, at the given time. Adolescents who were victims of assault or violence began to use drugs at a younger age, compared to those who were witnesses (Kilpatrick 2000). The risk for drug use was the highest during the year after the occurrence or witness of the violent act.

“Risk of substance abuse or dependence was consistently elevated in adolescents who had been victims of assault or who had witnessed violence” (Kilpatrick 2000). Discussion: It is devastating how much the use of drugs amongst teens has risen in the past ten years. I think that there are many ways of preventing this increase in drug use in the teen population. If we begin improving these variables that have caused the problems in the beginning and raise awareness to adolescents about the risks and problems that are due to drug use, they will think again about experimentation. Conclusion:

There are multiple variables contributing to the increased drug use in adolescents over the past ten years. The two variables that had the greatest impact on teen drug use are an adolescents family association and peer group. Other contributing factors were ethnicity and gender and victimization. Although they were just minor variables, to a group sample they can severely effect an individual behavior. Peer and family relationships are the two more influential variables in an adolescent’s life. If his/ her relationships with either of them are inadequate it can cause drug-affiliated problems.

The effects of the parent- adolescent relationships, maternal affection and parental norm influence are directed towards the drug use in adolescents. “The relationship between disruptive family relationships and deviant behavior among adolescents, including drug use, is well recognized” (Bhattacharya 1998). Parents can influence whom their child does or does not associate with. If they do not monitor their peers, they may end up affiliating with the deviant crowd, who can then in turn influence drug use.

Gender, ethnicity and victimization are variables that can not be altered to a certain degree but do effect the risk of drug use in adolescents. Males are at greater risk for alcohol and marijuana use, over females. An individuals ethnicity can also play a role in drug use. Whether you’re Caucasian, African American, Chinese or Mexican, your ethnic background can influence your choice to use or abuse drugs. Victimization is another variable, because as a result of an assault or violent act an individual may feel they need to turn to drugs as a way to cope with the pressures, and to forget about the incident.

Sexual initiation at early age: according to the survey done by the Center for Disease Control, an increased number of young people in modern age engage in sexual intercourse at a very tender age. In the report, 47 per cent …

Human beings begin to develop from the time that they were conceived until they were born, and they continuously grow and change until they reach the stage of adulthood. Thus, various developmental theories were conceptualized which attempt to explain how …

However, these factors are only vital in the initial stages of drug use. These factors take on less significance as drug addiction sets in (Addiction Science Network, 2000). With continued drug use, a person is exposed to “potent pharmacological effects” …

The users can engage in unprotected sex, drive while intoxicated, or engage in violent activities such as fights or riots with other people. These activities may have negative consequences later on. For instance, a girl engaging in sex while high …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy