Thesis: Provide a broad overview of the history, future, benefits, and controversies of cosmetic surgery. I. Introduction to history of cosmetic surgery through the ages . 800 B. C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction . World War I had a impact on Plastic Surgery; due to war wounds and disfigure . American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) . Techniques and procedures II. Risks and benefits of cosmetic surgery . Cosmetic Surgeries . Make the patient feel better about themselves, increase in confidence and self-esteem .
Surgical implications and errors . Harmful and deadly anesthetics complications IV. Malpractice of plastic/ cosmetic surgery . Knowledge of surgeon’s malpractice . Medical liability and Plastic surgery . Consent of patients rights . Knowledge of patient, for the physician’s safety History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery, initially plastic surgery was intended and usually used as a repair mechanism to reconstruct, as early as 800 B. C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction. In plastic surgery, surgeons use skin grafting- transfer of skin tissue.
There are different types of skin grafting; Auto grafts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds. Anesthetic surgeries carry a high risk because patients frequently do not consider the invasive nature of the procedures. It is important for a medical expert to discuss the patient’s reasons behind requesting a cosmetic surgery to evaluate if the patient is a good surgical candidate. Surgical malpractice is a difficult case to investigate and prove.
There is a gap between patient knowledge and hospital staff, the patient has to prove that the surgeon did not meet applicable standard care to the patient, the surgeon breached this duty of care, and most of the entire patient was injured as a direct result of the breach. History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery History of Plastic/ Cosmetic Surgery, initially plastic surgery was intended and usually used as a repair mechanism to reconstruct, as early as 800 B. C. Physicians were utilizing skin grafts for facial reconstruction.
The birth place of plastic surgery was India, plastic surgery was used to repair the noses of criminals in India who were punished for crimes, and plastic surgery involved taking skin from the forehead and using a repair skin for other parts of the body. Along with, India Egypt also recognized the concept of plastic surgery, Egypt used plating surgery to repair the dead stuffing bandages inside of the body to form past prescience, was a duplication of now modern cosmetic surgery instead now you implants.
There are two types of plastic surgery; cosmetic (surgical and non-surgical) and reconstructive. Cosmetic surgery is done for the purpose of improving appearance while reconstructive surgery corrects or repairs a defect or injury (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2011). World War I had a impact on Plastic Surgery; due to war wounds and disfigure, During and after WWI soldiers came home with missing limbs and shrapnel torn faces that disfigured their appearance. Typically, plastic/ cosmetic surgery was reserved as a repair mechanism to assist wounded and deformed soldiers in war.
Development off techniques and experimentation of plastic surgery and prompted Harold Delf Gilles (1882-1860) to establish the first hospital devoted to reconstructive plastic surgery (Backstein and Hinek 2005). In 1814, Joseph Carpue successfully performed cosmetic procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. The development of cosmetic surgery received a push for movement from the need to repair gross deformities sustained in WWI to the need to change normal and typical physical appearances.
American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) Early surgeons intended cosmetic surgery for surgical repair of congenital or acquired deformities and the restoration of contour to improve the appearance and function of tissue defects (Kazanjian, 250). After, World War I, modern surgery took innovation, cosmetic/ plastic surgery became a makeup mechanism instead of a deformity reconstruction for women. American society of plastic and reconstructive surgery, founded in 1931 was education and techniques to surgeons.
ASPRS, most common target was for birth defects and patients, who desired reconstruction. Reconstructive surgery is performed to correct birth defects, congenital abnormalities, cancer tumors, birthing defects from mother; caesarean section (c-section) physical impairments, traumatic injuries; facial breaks and fractures. Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. Techniques and procedures In plastic surgery, surgeons use skin grafting- transfer of skin tissue.
There are different types of skin grafting; Autografts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds. Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species. Xenografts are taken from a donor of a different species. Good results from plastic surgery are careful incisions, prevention from the line of the natural skin folding or creating lines, appropriate wound closure, and early removal of exposed wounds. Risk and Benefits of Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic Surgeries.
Plastic/ Cosmetic surgery is a type of medical procedure that is intended for the physical reconstruction in appearance of a patient. April 2012, cosmetic surguries are the most common in the United States; Liposuction, Breast augmentation, Abdominoplasty, Eyelid surgery, and Breast lift. Psychological view: Look and feel more attractive and younger A study performed by a social worker and two psychiatrists reported by the American Psychological Association showed that for the most part, patients felt well about them following plastic surgery. Patients reported a boost in self-image and overall well-being.
(“Mark of distinction,”) Most psychological emotions after surgery are; patient feels both emotionally and physically healthier. Patient has higher self esteem as well as more personable however, patient can also become depressed even more due to healing slowly or defect, error during surgery. Cosmetic surgery has many benefits as well as many risk and the risks out way the benefits. Surgical implications and errors Many patients do not take plastic surgery for being a high risk surgery, but plastic surgery is not a high risk surgery but like most surguries, plastics/ cosmetic surgery does carry a risk; for surgeon and patient.
The risk of plastic surgery can increase, risks may increase from patients pre-existing vascular conditions and health conditions. General risk for plastic surgery are Skin Death or Necrosis- is a high risk for smokers, however id this is not surgically removed this can affect the cosmetic outcome, Asymmetry, Tear in body stitches and bandages, Slow Healing- normal risk; this can be due to type of skin and healing rate, Numbness/Tingling; this results from injury during procedure, Irregularities, dimples, puckers, and divots; can be due to surgeon error and Seroma.
Non-abnormal complications with surgery are; abnormal heart rhythm, blood clots, death, heart attack, and nerve damage. Plastic surgery procedures performed in accredited surgical facilities by board-certified plastic surgeons have an excellent safety record. A 1997 survey1 based on more than 400,000 operations performed in accredited facilities found that: • The rate of serious complications was less than half of 1 percent. • The mortality rate was extremely low – only one in 57,000 cases.
• The overall risk of serious complications in an accredited office surgical facility is comparable with the risk in a freestanding surgical center or hospital ambulatory surgical facility (Morello,2011) Chances of something going wrong during or after the plastic surgery can result in an infection, disease, or illness. Also, a patient’s general health should be taken into consideration when evaluating risks. For example, smoking can slow and impede the healing process (Hagloch). Therefore, any cut that is made on the skin is likely to leave scar.
Another risk of plastic surgery is the anesthesia used during the procedure (Patzer) Anesthetic surgeries carry a high risk because patients frequently do not consider the invasive nature of the procedures. It is important for a medical expert to discuss the patient’s reasons behind requesting a cosmetic surgery to evaluate if the patient is a good surgical candidate. The physician should also explain the risks of surgery and any nonsurgical options that the patient may prefer. If the medical provider fails to detail vital aspects of the surgery, a medical malpractice incident
may occur. Anesthesia complications are at the most high risk during plastic surgery, most common but harmful complications are; Brain damage, not enough blood circulating to brain. Temporary paralysis, this is when the patient may have been giving muscle relaxants and have not worn off after the surgery. Rare complication, but is easy to treat is Malignant Hyperthermia, this complication is the increase of body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate increase to a hyperactive level.
Harmful anesthetic errors In most hospital cases, an anesthesia error during plastic/ cosmetic surgery is due to the negligence of an anesthesiologist and doctor who administered the sedation. Most common error anesthesiologist commit during surgery are: Leaving the patient sedated and unattended for a long period of time, incorrectly measuring the dosage for the patient, neglecting to pay attention to the patient’s vitals and progress, and improperly inserting the tube.
Malpractice of plastic/ cosmetic surgery Medical malpractice is a type of negligence in which the professional under a duty to act fails to follow generally accepted professional standards, and that breach of duty is the proximate cause of injury to a plaintiff who suffers harm. It is committed by a professional or her/his subordinates or agents on behalf of a client or patient that causes damages to the client or patient.
General medical malpractice statistics related to surgery malpractice in the USA: Nearly 50% of malpractice trials were against surgeons in 75 of the largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics) Nearly 33% of malpractice trials were against no surgeons in 75 of the largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics) Roughly 50% of medical malpractice trials related to surgeons in the 75 largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice)
Roughly 33% of medical malpractice trials related to no surgeons in the 75 largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice) Roughly 23% of medical malpractice trials against no surgeon doctors were won by the plaintiff in the 75 largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice)
Roughly 26. 5% of medical malpractice trials against surgeons were won by the plaintiff in the 75 largest counties in the US 2001 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice) Furthermore, medical malpractice and plastics surgery a patient has to be able to justify noneconomic damage, related emotional distress, diminished quality of life, and disfigurement resulting from surgery. Plastic surgery is a great reconstructive procedure; it comes with psychological benefits, as well as life or death risk.
As a patient you are covered and have a right to accurate, standard care cosmetic surgical procedures. References American Society of Plastic Surgeons. “The History of Plastic Surgery, ASPS and PSEF. ” Accessed: July 20, 2008. DiBacco, Thomas. Dec 13, 1994. “Plastic Surgeries Earliest Cases Date to Ancient Egypt, India. ” Washington Post. Accessed: July 20, 2008. Backstein R, and A. Hinkek. 2005. “War and Medicine: The Origins of Plastic Surgery. ” University Toronto Medical Journal. 3:217-219. ’ “New trends in 2011 cosmetic surgery statistics. ” States News Service 4 Apr. 2012. Academic OneFile. Web. 29 May 2012. Gilman, Sander L. 1999. Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Mark of distinction in cosmetic surgery. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. surgery. org/ Morello, D. C. (2011). Cosmetic surgery. Retrieved from http://www. smartplasticsurgery. com/surgery/risks. html hanging indent.
http://www. rightdiagnosis. com/s/surgical_errors_complications/malpractice. htm. (2012, November 06). Retrieved from http://www. rightdiagnosis. com/s/surgical_errors_complications/malpractice. htm Santoni-Rugiu, Paolo (2007). A History of Plastic Surgery. Springer. Nestle v. Atlanta Oculoplastic surgery, 286 Ga. 731(Ga. 2010) Brenton Anderton v. Wallace P. Berkowitz, M. D. , and Wallace P. Berkowitz, M. D. , Ltd.