Reception and Nursery

“Piaget did accept this criticism, and modified his views about the ages at which the different kinds of thinking occurred. He had thought that children’s mental abilities changed at particular ages, that is, 2, 7, and 11. These seemed to fit the ages of the children he had observed and tested who were capable of understanding the various games and tests he used”. Davenport G. C. page 142 Cognitive(or thought) and language theories are thought to be closely linked. Some psychologists suggest that cognitive development is not possible without a language in which to process thoughts.

There are four main theories on language development: 1. Imitation Theory – B. F. Skinner (1904) claimed that adults shape babies sounds into words and words into sentences. Skinner was a Behaviourist; he claimed that children learn language through operant conditioning. He stated children receive reinforcement for uttering certain sounds in the form of parental encouragement and approval through positive encouragement, body language and facial expressions. Parents will reinforce the sounds they recognise e. g. “dada” would be reinforced back to the child as ” daddy”.

However, Brown (69) criticised this theory. Skinner himself stated that parents would not reinforce sounds they did not recognise, therefore, Brown said that parents are only responding to a presumed meaning. Brain (71) and Tizard (72) also stated that trying to correct a child’s grammar had little effect as this followed later in language development. Likewise, mothers who continually corrected their child’s speech as opposed to relaying it back properly without placing guilt on the child for speaking incorrectly, actually hinders their language development (Nelson (73)). 2.

Nativist Theory – Noam Chomsky challenged the imitation theory. He claimed that children have an innate “language acquisition device” present only in a human brain This device allows children to acquire language through an innate physical developmental programming, the process being automatic and in need of little outside stimuli – that they are born with a biological capacity for language. He stated it is part of genetic inheritance and that children can invent new sentences which had not been heard before. Chomsky stated that : *babies are born with a predisposition to learn, talk and listen

Children learn to talk because they are genetically equipped to do so. They learn partially through the people they meet and socilaise with. Bruce, T. & Meggitt, C. Page 114 Research has shown that mistakes made by children when they talk are similar with children from different language backgrounds – including those who use sign language as a first language. When children first speak in an egocentric manner, they use the term “Me want…. ” As opposed to “I want… ” which is the correct grammatical sense in the English Language that has to be learned. In some other languages, the term “Me want…

Is acceptable. This gives important clues that children do have innate language rules. This is also one of the reasons that some people think that English is a hard language to pick up as a second language as it has many rules – more than other European languages; English Grammar is not thought to be an ‘innate’ where as the opposite has been thought of other languages. 3. Interactionist Theory – language acquisition viewed in context of cognitive development. Social environment is important for the development of language. This theory is backed by Piaget, Brunner and Vygotsky.

Both Bruner and Vygotsky emphasised that language development does not occur in a vacuum, social interaction is vital for cognitive development, especially language and thinking. Children experience communication in a social context and although the vocabulary may be unfamiliar, the context of use is safe and comfortable and so language can be learned and understood. Cognitive theories are the belief that a child development depends on their interaction with other people and their environments and that children learn by building their own understanding of the world.

In Piaget’s theory, learning emerges through the completion of the processes of development that occur in the sensori-motor stage. Language is intimately bound up with cognitive development. 4. Input Theory – this theory stresses the importance of language used by adults; particularly mothers (‘motherese’) where they use higher pitch, speak more slowly and with repetition. Learning should be encouraged regardless of gender theories but with the teacher/parent aware of how a child learns best e. g. visually, audibly, kinesthetically, or a mixture of the three.

This links with the Rumbold Reports’ eight areas of learning: Within LEA maintained settings all plan their curriculum in areas of learning – most use the eight areas of learning outlined in the Rumbold report `Starting With Quality=:- Aesthetic and Creative, Human and Social, Language and Literacy, Mathematics, Physical, Science, Spiritual and Moral, Technology. The Foundation Stage also sets out the Early Learning Goals which are what most children are expected to achieve in each area of learning before they progress into Year 1.

This gives further guidance on what Reception and Nursery teachers need to help the children to achieve. The Goals have high expectations but are achievable with good quality provision, an appropriate curriculum and high, effective teaching. The teaching objectives in Reception Year of the National Numeracy and Literacy Strategies are in line with these goals. The achievement of children beyond the Early Learning Goals can be described using the level descriptions of the National Curriculum.

Children should have the opportunity to learn from when they are born, from their parent/carers or other siblings at home. Development is helped by parent/siblings talking to the child, playing, providing toys which the child can handle, investigate with to …

So much of human development involves interaction with others therefore the medium of language whether spoken, written or gestured, plays a central role in our lives. But what is language, how can it be defined and what are its major …

My work experience placement was at Orchard day nursery in handforth and was really really good although we did the same thing everyday at the same time it was amazingly fun and the children were really energetic and friendly. Before my …

Another communicative tool available to infants is the use of vocalisations such as babbling, it has been proposed that from as early as one month infants begin to recognise phonemes such as the consonant sounds d and s and soon …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out