When we thing of intelligence and achievement we usually think of the terms as being in the same; but in fact, that is not true. Intelligence as defined with my built in Apple laptop dictionary defines intelligences as the ability to acquire and supply knowledge and skills. While this same built in dictionary defines achievement as a thing done successfully, typically by effort, courage, or skill. Alfred Binet wrote the components that make up intelligence included reasoning, judgment, memory, and generalization (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010).
In this analysis four different assessment tests are going to be measured and evaluated, two intelligence, “Test of Memory and Learning” and “Primary Test of Nonverbal intelligence” and two achievements, “Canadian Achievement Test” and “Basic Achievement Skills Inventory. They will also be compared to other major definitions of intelligence, compared to each other and each assessments ethical consideration will be reviewed.
Definitions of Intelligence
Sir Francis Galton was the first person to publish how heredity can influence intelligence. Believed as well that the prevalent of intelligent people were outfitted with the unsurpassed sensory abilities. Galton also viewed intelligence as a quantity of diverse methods or aptitudes that could only be assessed by separate tests (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 279). Alfred Binet was responsible at the turn of the century for the testing movement for intelligence. Binet believed that you could not separate methods because sometimes they interacted with another and produce a solution. Since more then one method can be used at one time Binet suggested for a more multifaceted measurement of testing intelligence (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
While David Wechsler’s definition of intelligence acknowledges the complexity of intelligence with intangible cumulative or inclusive capacity. Along with this he presents how nonintellectual factors must be taken into account when accessing intelligence. Nonintellectual factors include potentials of the nature of conative, affective, or personality straits, which can include drive, persistence, and goal awareness along with the individual’s impending to identify and counters to social, moral, and visual values (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
The Canadian Achievement Tests (CAT) is a test designed for students’ ages starting from 11 to 20-years old. This test consists largely of multiple-choice questions and some created response questions. The CAT is a standardized test of student achievement in areas of reading, language usage, vocabulary, mathematics, and calculation. CAT tests were at the start a derivative of the California Achievement Tests (Canadian Test Centre, 2002). Since CAT test for a level of areas it goes along the lines of Binet. Binet believed areas of testing could not be separate they in fact overlapped. Reading, vocabulary, and language usage all overlap so this is a good example of Binet’s suggestion that testing intelligence is a multifaceted measurement (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
The Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (PTONI) this test is administered individually by asking the child to point to the object is a set of pictures or geometric designs, which would not go, belong in the picture. This test is for children three years, zero months to nine years, and eleven months. The PTONI was designed particularly to assess and measure the intellectual ability of young children when traditional assessments may not be feasible (Ehrler & McGhee, 2008). David Wechsler states in his assessment that working memory and processing speed. There are also non-intellective factors like personality traits that can affect data scoring. With children even using non-verbal can bring out their personality and contribute to their scoring on such test. (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
Evaluate the Measures of Intelligence The Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (PTONI) standardized sample included 1,010 children. The children ages were 0-3 to 9-11 years. Each child selected represented standard population of the nation. Test writers reported back appropriate means and standard deviations for both English and foreign language administration showed evidence language had not effect on overall results (Ehrler & McGhee, 2008). The reliability was based on a test-retest of 94 students who again were reassessed two weeks later. With both data combined it provided a good correlation of ample support for the tests reliability. The data to provide validity was included on the PTONI manual, which was content-description, criterion-prediction, and construct identification (Ehrler & McGhee, 2008).
The Canadian Achievement Test is designed for students ranging in age from 11 years to 20 years. CAT has eight different test booklets selected at levels. These test booklets are single documents that have all the questions for the specific test level. The time students have to take this test range from 140 minutes to 210 minutes. The answer sheets are either scored by the teacher’s answer key or can be sent to the test publisher for scanning and generate reports of students, class, and school reports. The CAT used 211 schools throughout Canada and 44,000 total students for the sampling. Content and structural characteristics’ of the CAT test made the validity of the test. The content validity evidence showed items matched the test specifications what was created by educators (Canadian Test Centre, 2002).
Compare and Contrast All four test assessments dealt with children and adolescents devised to measure what children and adolescents learn and retain. All four of the assessments selected supplied specified material on how it was developed and intended for measuring abilities. Test of learning and memory was standardized to a sample of 1,961 individuals living in 28 different states. The test was administered like the others to individuals. This test only evaluated memory function. Ages were 5 through 59 years old. Evidence of validity was addressed by the response process involved in the assessment of task analyses for various subtests (Reynolds & Voress, 2007).
Ethical Considerations Ethical considerations in assessment testing have its place in education because not all students learn the same way at the same pace. These assessment tests can see if there is an area of problem and student can receive the help needed. When using a large sampling it is important to make sure there is not a language barrier, wide arrays of students are used, and keep bias from happening.
As mentioned in the beginning we think of the terms intelligence and achievement as the same and in fact they are not. Achievement and intelligence testing have their places in an academic setting. These assessments help teachers and parents see exactly where their student is and where they might need areas of help. Out of the four assessments all things were considered and bias was not a problem.
Bardos, A. (2004). Basic achievement skills inventory. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2010). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Canadian Test Centre, E. (2002). Canadian achievement test. (3rd ed.). Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Ehrler, D. J., & McGhee, R. (2008). Primary test of nonverbal intelligence. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Reynolds, C. R., & Voress, J. (2007). Test of memory and learning. (2nd ed.). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.