Project Report on Pharma Pharmaceutical industry

In India, modern system of medicine is a 20th century phenomena, though the traditional system of medicine has been in practice for many centuries. Therefore, in discussing the evolution of the IPI, three points of time are very relevant. These are: 1900-1970, 1970-1990 and the decade of 1990s. The period 1900-1970 signifies the dominance of the multinationals in this field that were basically importing bulk drugs and formulations from abroad.

Most domestic manufacturers were engaged in repacking the formulations produced by the multinationals and production was concentrated in the hands of the multinationals. Production of modern medicine by indigenous units started with the setting up of Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical works in 1892, which was followed by the establishment of Alembic Chemical works in 1907 and Bengal Immunity in 1919. At this point in time, the Patents Act of 1911 was in practice, which facilitated patenting all the known and possible processes of manufacturing of the said drug besides patenting the drug itself.

Hence, the indigenous firms were legally prevented from manufacturing most of the new drugs during the life of the patent secured by the latter, i e, for 16 years, which could be extended to a maximum of another 10 years if the working of the patent had not been sufficiently remunerative to the patentee. This gave them the monopoly power initially. The domestic firms were also for bidden from processing a patented drug into formulations or importing it. However, the Second World War and the introduction of sulpha drugs and penicillin gave on impetus to the pharmaceutical industry.

The policy instruments of independent India emphasized on creating a strong public sector unit. In the pharmaceutical front, specific areas of production were defined for the public, private and the domestic sector. The setting up of the public sector units and the technical institutes meant for creating technical skills in the country contributed to the growth of the domestic industry. By 1952, a few drugs like tetanus anti-toxin, PAS and Indocblorhydroxyquinoline were produced in India from their basic stages .

However, the import content of the basic drugs was high due to which the prices of the pharmaceutical products of India were the highest in the world. The second period of 1970-1990 is very significant for the IPI since, a few important changes that had implications on the growth of the IPI took place during this time. The Patent Act of 1911 was amended in 1970, which came into force in 1972. The 1970 Patent Act provides protection for the processes of manufacturing the drug for seven years from the date of filing the application or five years from the date of the grant of the patent.

Under this Act only one process that was used in the actual manufacturing could be patented. This change brought a renaissance to the pharmaceutical industry of India. More units larger in size and capacity set up in the 1970s and 1980s started producing drugs, which were primarily imported till then. The technical institutes that were set up in the early 1950s and 1960s resulted in creating technical and engineering skills, which could easily adapt the technology developed elsewhere, proved to be very advantageous for the industry.

By 1972, over 100 essential drugs covering a wide spectrum of therapeutic groups like antibiotics, sulpha drugs, anti leprotic drugs, analgesics, antipyretics, vitamins, tranquillisers, photochemical and various other pharmaceutical chemicals were produced in India from basic stages . A significant increase in the production of bulk drugs and formulations is observed before and after the 1970s. In the early 1970s, the government introduced the MRTP Act the FERA, which aimed at reducing the concentration of economic power with few units and controlling the flight of foreign exchange from the country.

Basically units, which were not bringing in any new technology were asked to reduce their foreign equity and renewal of their licence was also subject to their bringing in new technology. This resulted in the dilution of the foreign equity, which is reported in the Table As a strategy to protect the domestic industry from competition, the FERA companies were also not permitted to produce a list of drugs, which were delicensed during the 1980s. STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRY • Fragmented with 24000 players – 300 organized • Leading 250 – 70% of the market • Market leaders hold 7%.

• Manufactures : Bulk drugs – APIs Formulations (75:25) • Adopts high technology & produces high value products Objective of the study A. To identify the various forces which are affecting the distribution channel of pharmaceutical industry? B. To understand the process of pharmaceutical marketing. C. To suggest appropriate modification in the distribution channel for pharmaceutical industry. Need to know about the Pharmaceutical Industry The Pharmaceutical Industry Today The pharmaceutical industry is one of the largest and most exciting sectors to be working in today.

It is a rapidly changing environment where many advances have taken place over the past 20 years. Furthermore, it will continue to develop and evolve at an ever-increasing pace over the next decade. New drugs, new technologies and exciting new discoveries have driven this evolution. Dr Allan Jordan, Senior Medicinal Chemist at Vernalis will present a clear picture of today’s pharmaceutical industry. • The origins of the industry • Where are we now and what issues are we likely to face in the future? • How do generic medicines and parallel trade affect the industry? • What is Biotech and how does it fit into the sector?

Regulatory Control of Medicines As a result of the Thalidomide disaster of the late 1950s and early 1960s, medicines have become one of the most highly regulated products in the world. Data demonstrating their safety and efficacy must be filed with government agencies in order to move through clinical development, to obtain approval to sell a new drug and at regular intervals thereafter. Each country has its own regulatory authority and laws governing the development and sale of medicines. In addition, in Europe, there is a regulatory agency at the European level (EMEA).

Internationally, there is regulatory co-operation between Europe, the USA and Japan (ICH). As a result, the regulatory control of medicines is a complicated business. The speaker will discuss the current regulatory framework for medicines including: • Why we have regulatory control of medicines • Who the major regulatory bodies are (MHRA, FDA, EMEA, ICH) • What their role is within drug development • What the main regulatory submissions are that a company will make • Drug Discovery and Development Why is drug discovery so important and what are the key stages in drug development?

Dr Allan Jordan, Senior Medicinal Chemist at Vernalis will take you through the whole lifecycle of drug discovery – a process that normally takes the Pharmaceutical Industry 10 years. He will explain how new technologies are shaping the future of the industry and discuss the strengths and benefits of conducting pharmaceutical research in the UK. • Drugs and drug targets • Drug discovery: where do leads come from? • From lead to candidate: turning a good lead into a good drug • Early pre-clinical development • Research priorities • The UK Pharmaceutical Industry: the best in the world?

Preclinical Studies Before first administration to man, the safety of a new drug has to be evaluated in animals. In this highly regulated environment, a programme of studies, designed to be relevant to the proposed therapeutic use of the drug, must be undertaken. Additional studies will also be required as the compound passes through the different phases of clinical development. The speaker will address the following points: • What key questions do the preclinical studies attempt to answer? • Which studies need to be undertaken • When these studies should be performed.

• How we use the information produced Clinical Trials Phases I-IV Clinical trials are one of the most important areas of research simply because human patients are involved. In this presentation, Dr Jorg Taubel, Managing Director of Richmond Pharmacology, will describe the stages of the clinical trial process, explaining the importance of each stage. • What is a clinical trial? • What are the stages of the clinical trial process – Phases I-IV? • Who’s who in clinical trials • The contribution of each department to the clinical trial • Demystifying the jargon and terminology.

Medical Marketing Medical marketing involves planning and analysis in order to help promote and sell pharmaceutical products to both clinical and medical professionals. Brian Smith, Marketing Consultant for PragMedic, will explain the strategies involved and how medical marketing differs from marketing in other industries. • What is medical marketing? • The key concepts of medical marketing strategies • Strategic trends in the industry • The marketer’s tool box – promotional devices for marketing • Key questions for support staff in medical marketing departments.

Key Legal Issues for the Pharmaceutical Industry In order to protect the huge investment in time and money necessary to bring a product to market, knowledge must be protected as an asset. Consequently, workers in the Pharmaceutical Industry need an understanding of the relevant intellectual property rights. This talk examines some of the basics, with particular emphasis on patents. It will assist pharmaceutical personnel to spot issues where further advice may be needed. Topics covered will include: • Update on intellectual property rights.

• Pharmaceutical patent litigation – revocation – infringement – interim injunctions • European enlargement – data exclusivity – parallel importation Anatomy of a Licensing Deal This session will look at the key features of a pharmaceutical licensing deal. Topics that will be covered include: • The scope of the licence – what is being licensed, where, for how long and for what purpose? • Payments – royalties – milestones – auditing INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION Indian pharmaceutical industry can be widely classified into bulk drugs, formulations and contract research.

Bulk drugs are the Indian name for Active Pharmaceuticals Ingredients (API). Formulations cover both branded products and generics. Indian pharmaceutical sector is self sufficient in meeting domestic demand and exports successfully to various markets globally. The existence of process patents in India till January 2005 fuelled the growth of domestic pharmaceutical companies and developed them in areas like organic synthesis and process engineering, as a result of which, Indian pharmaceuticals sector is able to meet almost 95 percent of the country’s pharmaceutical needs.

India is globally recognized as a low cost, high quality bulk drugs and formulations manufacturer and supplier. Contract Research, a nascent industry in India has witnessed commendable growth in the last few years. As per Yes Bank /OPPI report (2007-08), formulation segment (including domestic formulation and formulation exports) constituted 72%of the total pharmaceutical industry (in terms of sales) while bulk drugs and contract research constituted 25% and 3% of pharmaceutical industry respectively. [pic].

Fig: Segment-wise sales BULK DRUGS Bulk drug industry is the backbone of the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Growth of Indian bulk drug industry in the last five decades has been impressive and highest among developing countries. From a mere processing industry, Indian bulk drug industry has evolved into sophisticated industry today, meeting global standards inproduction, technology and quality control. Today, India stands among the top five producers of bulk drugs in the world. The market is fragmented with far too many players.

About 300 organised companies are involved in the production of bulk drugs in India. Over 70 percent of India’s bulk drug production is exported to more than 50 countries and the balance is sold locally to other formulators. Indian bulk drugindustry is mainly concentrated in the following regional belts – Mumbai to Ankleshwar, Hyderabad to Madras and Chandigarh. Around, 18000 bulk drug manufacturers exist in India. Some major producers of bulk drugs in Indian pharmaceutical industry are Ranbaxy Laboratories, Sun Pharma, Cadila, Wockhardt, Aurobindo Pharma, Cipla, Dr.

Reddy’s Laboratories, Orchid Pharmaceuticals & Chemicals, Nicholas Piramal, Lupin, Aristo Pharmaceuticals, etc. Most are involved bulk as well as formulations while a few are solely into bulk drugs. India is the world’s fifth largest producer of bulk drugs. The market size is expected to grow at higher percentages in future years with more and more international companies depending on India to meet their bulk-drug supply needs. Moreover, India is way ahead of competitors in the total number of Drug Master File (DMF) filings.

Of the overall DMF filings to US FDA, the portion of filings by Indian players has jumped from around 14% in 2000 to 46% of total filings in 2008( January-June) This growth in proportion speaks volumes about the quality standards followed in Indian manufacturing facilities. | | | | |Classification of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry On the basis of formulations, the pharmaceutical industry can further be classified into: | | | |Prescription medicines: | |Also known as ethical formulations. They can be dispensed only on the prescription from a qualified medical practitioner.

| |Over-the-counter medicines: | |Also known as OTC formulations. They can be dispensed even in the absence of prescription, e. g. analgesics, cough drug, etc. | | | |On the basis of formulations patent, pharmaceutical industry can be classified as | |Branded formulations: They are ethical formulations prepared using a bulk drug under product patent and are marketed by a single pharmaceutical company. | |Generics: They are formulations that do not contain any patented bulk drug and can be manufactured by more than one company. | Understanding the Dynamics of the Generics Industry.

An innovator pharmaceutical product is protected throughout the effective life of its patent, enabling the patent owner to reap the benefits of monopoly pricing. When the innovator patent expires, generic manufacturers can enter the market and sell their products at a cheaper price. The speaker will discuss what hurdles the generic company has to overcome to launch a generic pharmaceutical, how the entry of generics onto the market affects the innovator product and how the healthcare authorities are focusing on generic drugs as a way of reducing the prescribing within our healthcare system.

Topics covered include: • The economic case for generic pharmaceuticals • Factors affecting generic entry • Consequences of generic entry • Generics going forward How the Price of a Product is Set – An Introduction to Global Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Establishing prices for pharmaceutical products is a complex process involving integrated approaches to strategy development, as well as an appreciation of the very different pricing and funding systems and requirements adopted by governments.

In this introduction to pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement, Adam Barak, Director of ABPPC and former Head of European Pricing at GlaxoWellcome, will review the main issues facing pharmaceutical manufacturers when developing optimal pricing strategies including: • The corporate strategy: company commercial objectives as it impacts pricing • Implementing the corporate strategy: integration of pricing within the commercial strategy • Price and value • Government health spending controls: demand-side and supply-side • Different price-setting systems in Europe.

• Which price? How prices are built up • International price differentials • Parallel trade Indian Pharmaceutical Sector: Economic value & Government police |The Indian pharmaceutical industry, which is now meeting over 95% of the country’s pharmaceutical needs, was almost non-existent before 1970. With the | |compound annual growth of 19. 8% the industry has grown from Rs. 4 billion in 1970 to Rs. 290 billion in 2003. The pharma sector has shown tremendous growth | |over the years.

About 250 Indian pharmaceutical companies hold 70% of the market share with top players controlling about 7% of the market share. | | | |On 1st January 2005, the Government of India issued patent ordinance according to which the Indian pharma companies can no longer produce patented drugs. | | | |So now the companies have started exploring new business opportunities, including contract research (drug discovery and clinical trials), co-marketing | |alliances and contract manufacturing.

| | | |A few years ago, investment in R&D was as low as 0. 001% of the total R&D worldwide, but now companies are focusing on drug discovery and R&D. They are | |spending over 5% of their turnover on R&D e. g. Wockhardt (8%), Cipla (4%), Cadila (4. 45%). | | | |The value of Indian Over-The-Counter Medicines (OTCs) market is over US$ 940 million and is growing at the rate of 20% per year. There are about 61 US FDA | |approved plants in India, which will help Indian companies grab the opportunity of contract manufacturing.

| | | | | | | | | |The NPPA (National Pharma Pricing Authority), sets prices of different drugs, which leads to | |lower profitability for the companies. Indian pharma market is one of the least | |penetrated in the world: India accounts for almost 16% of the world population while the | |total size of industry is just 1-2% of the global | |pharma industry | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Large no. of small players increases competition and reduces efficiency | | | | | |The new patent product regime will bring with it new innovative drugs.

This will increase the profitability of MNC pharma companies and will force domestic | |pharma companies to focus more on R&D | |Large number of drugs going off-patent in Europe and in the US between 2005 to 2009 offers a big opportunity for the Indian companies to capture this market | |Can become a global outsourcing hub for pharmaceutical products | | | |New markets are opening | |Aging of the world population, Growing incomes, Growing attention for health. Containment of rising health-care cost.

High Cost of discovering new | |products and fewer discoveries | |Stricter registration procedures | | | | | |High entry cost in newer markets. | | | |Threats from other low cost countries like China and Israel exist | | | |Mature pharmaceutical market: is expected to grow at 1% ~ 4% by 2013 | | | | | |Emerging pharmaceutical market: is expected to grow at 13% ~ 16% by 2013 | |High growth in generic segment as $123bn worth patent will expire by 2012 ($18. 4bn benegit to India) | |generics space and the increasing litigation instances in the US are compelling Indian companies to consider opportunities beyond US | | | |CUSTOM DUTY | |.

| |. Exemption of custom duty for import of all capital goods inputs, consumables and reference standards for R&D purposes | | | |Extension of customs duty exemption to more life saving drugs and other anti–Aids and anti–cancer formulations | | | |EXCISE DUTY | |Goods manufactured in R&D centres should be exempted from excise duty and service tax | |Extension of excise duty exemption to more life saving Extension of excise duty exemption to more life saving | | | |OTHERS | | | |Strengthen and increase capital outlay for academic institutions engaged in scientific research.

| |Requirement of a single window clearances instead of multiple clearances from different institutions for testing a new molecule Passing of Central Drug | |Authority Bill –pending for the last five years | | | |Removal of cost based price controls Continuation of the tax shelter in specified zones like Himachal | |Pradesh, Sikkim and Jammu Cut off date for the tax holiday should be extended till March 31, 2012. {1} | | | |Benefit should be expanded to cover expenditure incidental to research carried outside R&D facility such as clinical trials, bio- equivalence studies etc | |carried on in India or in any foreign country.

| | | | | | | | | |Acc. to new proposal: | | | | | |b) Co. ’s which have set up overseas subsidiaries in India, will have to pay tax on their earnings earned abroad | | | | | |c) US companies who are outsourcing services to overseas India will be at a disadvantage as their earnings from | | | |these countries will now be treated as income, and they would be liable to pay tax on it. | | | |

Existing practice wherein companies who are outsourcing services earned tax credits on income | |earned through those services | | | | | |Shocker to Indian pharma companies engaged in contract manufacturing and research services (could | | | |adversely affect their outsourcing services business as majority of their clients belong to US. ) | | | | | | | [pic] | | ADVANTAGE IN INDIA Competent workforce: India possessa skillful work force with high managerial and technical competence.

Cost-effective chemical synthesis: The track record for development, particularly in the area of improved cost-beneficial chemical synthesis for various drug molecules is excellent. Legal & Financial Framework:

India is a democratic country with a solid legal framework and strong financial markets. There is already an established international industry and business community. Information & Technology: It has a good network of world-class educational institutions and established strengths in Information Technology. Globalization:

The country is committed to a free market economy and globalization. Above all, it has a 70 million middle class market, which is constantly growing. Consolidation: After many years, the international pharmaceutical industry has discovered great opportunities in India.

The process of consolidation, which has become a popular phenomenon in the world pharmaceutical industry, has started taking place in the Indian pharmaceutical industry as well. The Indian pharmaceutical industry [pic] ADVANTAGES IN INDIA | | |Indian Pharmaceutical Sector: Future Scenario | | | | | |The Indian companies are using the revenue generated from generic drug sales to promote drug discovery projects and new delivery technologies. Contract | |research in India is also growing at the rate of 20-25% per year and was valued at US$ 10-120million in 2005.

India is holding a major share in world’s | |contract research business activity and it continues to expand its presence. | | | | | |Clinical Research Outsourcing (CRO), a budding industry valued over US$ 118 million per year in India, is estimated to grow to US$ 380 million by 2010, as | |MNCs are entering the market with ambitious plans. | | | | | |By revising its R&D policies the government is trying to boost R&D in domestic pharma industry. It is giving tax exemption for a period of ten years and | |relieving customs and excise duties of all the drugs and material imported or exported for clinical trials to promote innovative R&D.

| |The future of Indian pharmaceutical sector is very bright because of the following factors: | |Clinical trials in India cost US$ 25 million each, whereas in US they cost between US$ 300-350 million each. | |Indian pharmaceutical companies are spending 30-50% less on custom synthesis services as compared to its global costs. | |In India investigational new drug stage costs around US$ 10-15 million, which is almost 1/10th of its cost in US (US$ 100-150million). |

| SWOT ANALYSIS | | | |Strengths:- | |Cost effective technology | |Strong and well-developed manufacturing base | |Clinical research and trials | |Knowledge based, low- cost manpower in science & technology | |Proficiency in path-breaking research | |High-quality formulations and drugs | |High standards of purity | |Non-infringing processes of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) | |Future growth driver | |World-class process development labs | |Excellent clinical trial centers | |Chemical and process development competencies | |

| | Weaknesses | |Low Indian share in world pharmaceutical market (about 2%) | |Lack of strategic planning | |Fragmented capacities | |Low R&D investments | |Absence of association between institutes and industry | |Low healthcare expenditure | |Production of duplicate drugs | | | |Opportunities | |Incredible export potential | |Increasing health consciousness | |New innovative therapeutic products | |Globalization | |Drug delivery system management | |

Increased incomes | |Production of generic drugs | |Contract manufacturing | |Clinical trials & research | |Drug molecules | | | |Threats | |Small number of discoveries | |Competition from M N Cs | |Transformation of process patent to product patent (TRIPS) | |TOP TEN PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES BY WORLDWIDE SALES (2007-08) | | | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5,600 smaller licensed generics manufacturers share is around 70% India produces 22% of world generics.

Per capita consumption of drugs is very low $93 as compared to $412(Japan), $222(Germany), $191(US) India among top 5 bulk drug producers in world Ranbaxy is 7th world’s largest generic manufacture India pharma Mkt size FY09 Rs 93881 ($19 bn) cr on the basis of sales, g=13% India is the world’s 4th largest producer of pharmaceuticals by volume (accounting for around 8% of global production) In value terms, production accounts for around 1. 5% of the world INDIAN PHARMA MARKET [pic] [pic] [pic] Top 10 companies contributes 30% of market share (or basis of standalone sales) Company Name MARKET SHARE % 5. 60 Cipla Ltd. 4. 76 Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. 4. 47 Dr.

Reddy’S Laboratories Ltd. 4. 03 Sun Pharmaceutical Inds. Ltd. 2. 98 Aurobindo Pharma Ltd. 2. 07 Cadila Healthcare Ltd. 1. 79 Glaxosmithkline Pharmaceuticals Ltd. 1. 60 Matrix Laboratories Ltd. 1. 36 Ipca Laboratories Ltd. Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd. 1. 29 [pic] [pic] [pic] Market Share of key drug 50 [pic]

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY |Announce date |Target |Acquirer |Reason |Deal Value |Target Country | |Feb-06 |Betapharm |Dr. Reddy’s Labs |Front end line in Germany|570 |Germany | |May-04 |Espama Gmbh |Wockhardt |Front end line in Germany|11 |Germany | |Nov-05 |Ranbaxy | Daichii Sankyo |Low cost manufacturing |33.

5 |Japan | | | | |and supply chain | | | | | | |management | | | | |Roche’s API Facility|Dr. Reddy’s Labs |Increasing presence in |58. 97 |Mexico | | | | |Contract Mfg | | | |Oct-05 |Avecia |Nicholas Piramal |Increasing presence in |17. 1 |UK,Canada | | | | |Contract Mfg | | | Distribution Channel Distribution is the process of delivering the product to the marketing channels and consumers. It encompasses the various activities involved in the physical flow of product from the producer to the consumer. Distribution takes care of the functions such as transportation, warehousing and inventory management and facilitates the flow of products from the producer to the consumers.

Distribution confers place and time utility on product by making it available to the user at the right time. Distribution involves planning, implementing and controlling of the physical flow of materials and final goods from the point of origin to the point of use to meet consumer requirements at a profit for the enterprise. As we have already seen that pharmaceutical product are not sold directly to the consumer, it takes some time and a mediator for the product to reach the end user, thus in between the producer and the end users there are many levels of intermediaries who facilitate the movement of goods and perform various other functions.

These intermediaries are termed as members of the distribution channel. In the pharmaceutical industry the manufacturing company supplies it’s products to the carrying and forwarding agent, who in turn supplies the distributor, the distributor supplies the products either to the doctors, the retailers or any government agencies, any of these three make the products available to the consumer for use.

In many places intermediaries such as sub stockiest and freelance wholesalers also exit who serve small retailer with limited capital. With drugs changing many hands before final delivery, the distribution structure in the pharmaceutical industry is very complex and has high costs.

To choose a particular distribution channel is most important as it tends to affect all other marketing decisions, in general the flow of pharmaceutical products is as follows for all companies. In order to have a better understanding of the distribution process in the pharmaceutical industry, let’s do a micro study and analysis of each intermediary of the distribution channel these distribution channel helps the company to sell it’s product to the consumers.

As a company cannot sell its products in the market directly, it has to depend on the various intermediaries in the distribution channel, if it tries to sell directly it could be a highly expensive practice for the company. C&F Agent It is the first intermediary of the pharmaceutical distribution channel.

They are know as clearing and forwarding agent, sometimes also referred to as super-stockiest or company depot etc. The C&FA is agency which is hired by the company or its depot. The C&F agents perform various functions some of which are as follow:- Organizational Structure of CFA In the stores departments there are stores assistants and packers who handle all the order. In the office & accounts department there are two subsections. One is the billing section & the other is the accounting section. In the billing section there are computer operators, records & dispatch worker, claims settlement department. The accounts department has accountants & one assistant accountant.

Ranbaxy’s CFA handle the order of the distributors from all parts of Maharastra & Goa and accordingly checks stock. Forecasts the demand if possibly and place the order with the company and receives the order. The CFA has certain restrictions upon it:- 1. The orders which are received from the distributors who are approved by the company will only be handled. 2. The orders have to be dispatched with a 48 hrs of receiving the order. 3. The order has to be processed with 24 hrs. Accounting Department:- The account department deals with the maintenance of account of the transaction of the CF It deals with all monetary realization of payments from the distributors.

This department assesses each division’s sales and helps in monitoring flow of money. Billing Department:- This section is mainly concerned with billing of the orders were each divisions billing takes place separately. The billing section prepares the invoice of the order and forwards it to the stores department for further processing and delivery of goods. This department thus maintains daily routine order and prepares month end sales closing report of the various divisions of ranbaxy. Stores Department: Stores are the warehouse or godown of the depot where the medicines of the different divisions are stored. Ranbaxy godown is in total 24,740 sqft.

The warehouse further has the following, section. 1. Non AC godown. 2. AC godown. 3. Walking cooler 4. Breakage/expiry/return section. The order that are collected from the company are checked for any breakage during transportation and the ones in proper state are stored as per their division and temperature required for medicines. The stores department also sees for expiry stock and returns it to the company. Thus a store is an important part of the CFA. Flow Chart for C&F Agent Stockiest/Distributor Stockiest or the distributor is the second intermediary in the channel of distribution after the C&F agent. The stockiest is appointed by the company.

The difference between stockiest and C&F agent is that stockiest has stocks of many companies and acts as a channel member of distribution for various companies at the same time whereas the C&F agent has stock of a single company and is the channel member of distribution for the same company. The number of stockiest depends on the market of company in the give territory stockiest are of two types:- A.

Direct stockiest:- Direct stockiest is the one who purchase medicine directly from the super- stockiest\ C&Fagent. B . Indirect stockiest:- Indirect stockiest is the one who purchase medicines from the direct stockiest of the company. The work force for the stockiest depends upon the total company’s he has and his market coverage. Generally three kind of people are employed at stockiest outlet, namely.

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