The study showed that there was a significant improvement in the quality of life of the study participants after at least 3 months of engaging in physical exercise. In addition, the functional capacity, as well as the muscular strength of these subjects improved when exercise was integrated into the daily regimen. The body composition of the study participants was also observed to improve, together with the structural features of their heart during echocardiography. These observations support the hypothesis that physical exercise improves the health of individuals positively diagnosed with heart failure.
IMPLANTATION OF DEFRIBILLATOR Another primary prevention measure for patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure is the implant a defibrillator devise that would prevent the occurrence of sudden cardiac death. The main principle behind this primary prevention measure is that the survival time of a patient with congestive heart failure is generally shorter than those who do not have a cardiovascular history. This device is generally introduced into the patient in the left subclavicular area, right underneath the subfascial space.
Fibrillation occurs when a T wave is created of approximately 50 Hz. Research has shown than this devise significantly decreases mortality by 30% to 55%. The American Heart Association has supported the guideline that defibrillator devices be implanted among selected patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Other countries around the world are also actively campaigning for the adaptation of this measure as part of their primary prevention scheme. In a study conducted by Tai-bo et al. (2010), approximately 34 patients received a defibrillator implant as a primary prevention measure.
All patients were also given pharmacologic treatment regimens consisting of beta-blockers, as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The study participants were monitored in terms of health progress for the next 15 months. The study showed that the implantation of the defibrillator device resulted in beneficial results, decreasing the number of deaths related to heart failure. Despite the small size of the study population and the short duration of follow-up of patients, the study showed positive results that could be employed as initial indicators for the need to further expand on this primary prevention activity.
ADMINISTRATION OF BETA-BLOCKERS Another primary prevention measure for patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure is the administration of beta-adrenergic receptor drugs. These pharmaceutical reagents are recognized to decrease the chances of sudden cardiac death, as well as the occurrence of ejection in relation to the left ventricle. Beta-blockers decrease the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, as this has been strongly associated with mortalities among congestive heart failure patients.
The most common beta-blockers include carvedilol and metoprolol, which prevent the accumulation of platelets and other clotting factors that impede blood circulation to and from the heart. According to a systematic study conduced by De Peuter et al. (2009), the combination of beta-1 and beta-2 blockers significantly reduced the occurrence of death among patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Comparison of the effect of administration of one beta-1 blockers was not as effective as introducing both beta-1 and beta-2 blockers, resulting in the improvement of the vascular condition of the treated patients.
This systematic review strongly suggests that this pharmacologic treatment should be adapted as the prime prevention measure for patients. CONCLUSIONS Primary prevention measures are important components in the delivery of healthcare services to patients diagnosed with specific medical conditions. A number of primary prevention actions have been identified for patients positively diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Physical exercise has been found to be an effective measure for the prevention of sudden cardiac death among heart failure patients.
In addition, the implantation of defibrillator devices has also benefited patients by regulating cardiac activity and ejection rates. The administration of two types of beta-blockers shows significant improvement in the cardiac condition of patients with congestive heart failure. Further studies on these primary prevention schemes may further improve the understanding of the mechanisms behind these approaches.
REFERENCES De Peuter, O. R. , Lussana, F. , Peters, R. J. G. , Buller, H. R. & Kamphuisen, P. W. (2009). A systematic review of selective and non-selective beta blockers for prevention of vascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 67(9), 284-294. Hinton, R. B. , Jr. (2008). The family history: Reemergence of an established tool. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 20, 149–158. Tai-bo, C. , Kang-an, C. , Peng, G. , Zhong-wei, C. , Jing-bo, F. , Xiu-chun, J. & Quan, F. (2010). Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in Chinese patients with heart failure: A single-center experience.
Chinese Medical Journal, 123, 848-851. Zuazagoitia, A. , Grandes, G. , Torcal, J. , Lekuona, I. , Echevarria, P. , Gomez, M. A. , Domingo, M. , de la Torre, M. M. , Ramirez, J. I. , Montoya, I. , Oyanguren, J. , Pinilla, R. O. S. & The EFICAR Group (Ejercicio Fisico en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca). (2010). Rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve the quality of life of patients with heart failure in primary care: The EFICAR study protocol. BMC Public Health, 10, 33-42.