Prevalence and Associated Factors

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Spiritual Needs Among Patients With Cancer and Family Caregiver Problem Statement Identify cancer patients and their caregivers spiritual needs and measure the prevalence of these spiritual needs. The patients and their caregivers can have similar spiritual needs that may require care. However, a nurse’s help with these spiritual needs, may not always be wanted. So how does the nurse identify the spiritual needs? If and when these needs are identified, how is the nurse to approach these needs?

Study Purpose This study is significant to nursing because it reveals “nurses must be educated to recognize and nurture various spiritual needs” (Johnston Taylor, 2006, p. 734). Research Questions 1. ) How prevalent are the spiritual needs of patients with cancer and family caregivers, from their perspective? 2. ) What demographic and illness-related factors are associated with type and frequency of perceived spiritual needs? 3. ) What are the patients’ and family caregivers’ expectations regarding nurses addressing their spiritual needs?

((Johnston Taylor, 2006, p. 730) Hypothesis/Hypotheses The study hypothesis is all people have spiritual needs, but the importance varies as do their beliefs. The desire for nurses to assist in these spiritual needs vary according to what is the patient’s religion, are they an inpatient, and perception of an incurable disease. Study Variables The independent variable is the questionnaire. The dependent variables are the research participants.

Conceptual Model/Theoretical Framework A theoretical framework was used to guide this study by examining peoples definition of spiritual needs, surveying oncology nurses, and looking at studies done measuring spiritual needs of cancer patients. The Institute of Medicine defined spiritual needs as “the needs and expectations that humans have to find meaning, purpose and value in their life” ((Murray, Kendall, Boyd, Worth, & Benton, 2004, p. 730). Whether religious or not, all people have various ways of believing to give their life purpose and meaning. Some may connect spiritually with what they call a higher power, nature, or other human beings.

A survey was done in 1995 with 181 oncology nurses and their perception of patients spiritual needs. They identified factors as patients talking about God or faith, meaning of life, or hopelessness or guilt. But “also identified more subtle expressions of spiritual need (e. g. , anxiety, anger, restlessness, sadness, withdrawal, difficulty coping)” ((Johnston Taylor, Amenta, & Highfield, 1995, p. 730). There have been many studies done measuring spiritual well-being and quality of life, but there has been only one that focused on the spiritual needs of those with cancer. ((Moadel et al. , 1999, p. 730) Review of Related Literature.

The literature supports the need for this study because all people believe in spirituality in some form and have needs. Cancer patients in previous studies have discussed their spiritual well-being and quality of life, but only one study focused on their spiritual needs. As healthcare providers we need to become educated to these spiritual needs and how to address them. Study Design This study is a descriptive design because of the need to gain more information about spiritual needs in cancer patients and their family caregivers. And also if patients require or request a nurse’s care regarding their spiritual needs.

At least 2 threats to the internal validity of this design would be selection due to inadequate number of non-Euro-Americans in the study and mortality due to the small number of research participants at 156 cancer patients and 68 family caregivers. There were no threats found to the external validity of this study design. Sample and Setting The sample included 156 cancer patients and 68 family caregivers. This sample of research participants represented the target population for this study by focusing on individuals and their family affected by cancer and their spiritual needs.

The setting was appropriate because each individual was given the option to speak face to face with a research team member or take home the Spiritual Interests Related to Illness Tool (SpIRIT) questionnaire. They all chose the questionnaire that was developed specifically for this study. Each participant completed the questionnaire without help from the research team and then returned to a neutral party that was not a member of the research team and chosen by the institutional research board. Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables.

The one extraneous variable noted was the SpIRIT questionnaire had not be offered prior to this study. By using a neutral party to receive the completed questionnaires helped alleviate potential problems. Study Instruments/Tools Used the Spiritual Interests Related to Illness Tool (SpIRIT) questionnaire Data Collection/Methods The data collection methods were appropriate for this study because of offering this study without pressure to participate and to remain anonymous. Data Analysis Procedures.

The data analysis procedure was appropriate for this type of data collected because they measured the central tendency (average) from the SpIRIT and the Information About You form; checked all SpIRIT items and removed one item that correlated poorly; and performed a factor analysis to determine SpIRIT validity. Then computed coefficient alphas. Strengths The 2 major strengths of the scientific merit of this study were: * “Those that who perceive more spiritual needs may be most receptive to nurses’ spiritual caregiving ((Johnston Taylor, 2006, p.733) *

“Religious people (as indicated by frequency of attendance at religious services) not only are more apt to consider spiritual needs important but also have more * Desire for nurses’ assistance with such needs ((Johnston Taylor, 2006, p. 733) Limitations The 2 major limitations of the scientific merit of this study were: * Samples of patients and family caregivers were from cancer patients that were not life threatening. * SpIRIT was a new test performed. Extent that study findings are valid are evidenced by the spiritual needs cancer patients and their family caregivers do have.

The study findings are practical for nursing practice and education because the analysis suggest cancer patients that may be a higher risk for spiritual distress and would benefit from a more-focused spiritual assessment. Implications Implications for practice would be to include admission questions related to the patients spiritual beliefs and/or values; any special needs related to religion or spirituality. And follow-up to have their needs met, record on patient electronic medical record for all involved in care to continue same care throughout patient stay.

Implications for education would be attend classes related to cultural and religious differences, meanings and needs. Implications for research would be to extend this study to a larger group and different cultures, religions, and terminally ill. References Johnston Taylor, E. (2006). Prevalence and Associated Factors of Spiritual Needs Among Patients With Cancer and Family Caregivers. Oncology Nursing Forum, 33 (4), 729-735. Johnston Taylor, E. , Amenta, M. , & Highfield, M. (1995). Spiritual care practices of oncology nurses.

Oncology Nursing Forum, 22(), 31-39. Moadel, A. , Morgan, C. , Fatone, A. , Grennan, J. , Carter, J. , & Laruffa, G. et al. (1999). Seeking meaning and hope: Self-reported spiritual and existential needs among an ethnically diverse cancer patient population. Psycho-Oncology, 8, 378-385. Murray, S. , Kendall, M. , Boyd, K. , Worth, A. , & Benton, T. (2004). Exploring the spiritual needs of people dying of lung cancer or heart failure: A prospective qualitative interview study of patients and their carers. Palliative Medicine, 18(), 39-45.

The problem in identifying and quantifying patient satisfaction is that it is just not possible to do so. The concept in many of the minds only limits to the patients or subjects’ attitude or aspects of care. Both these concepts …

The CABG procedure is very common in the United States. Isolated CABG, refers to the performance of coronary artery bypass procedures only, that is, no other cardiac procedures were performed during this procedure, is very common in the United States. …

According to the Herpesclinic. com (n. d. ), the most prevalent among viral sexually transmitted diseases is genital herpes. It affects one person for every 30 seconds. In fact, the number of cases for genital herpes is more compared to …

During pregnancy, a woman’s body experiences many remarkable changes in terms of the structure and function of the urinary tract. As blood volume expands, there is also an accompanied increase in the glomerular filtration rate and urinary output. As an …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out