Postpartum period increases the risk of developing mood disorders. Postpartum blues, postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis are the different types of mood disorders which are common in postpartum period. PPD has devastating effects on the lives of the mothers and newborn babies as depressed mothers tend to neglect their children and this weakens the mother-child relationship and can lead to psychiatric illnesses in children. A number of risk factors have been identified for PPD. These include history of depression, mood disturbance during pregnancy, major life events, low socioeconomic status, lack of social support, etc.
The purpose of this study is to find the prevalence of PPD in a tertiary care center and also to find an association between socioeconomic status and PPD. This study also aims to identify other risk factors of PPD. A prospective study will be conducted at a maternity ward in a tertiary care center and all the patients who give consent will be included in the study. The study participants will be interviewed at different time intervals: 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum.
The interview will be based on a structured questionnaire which will include the demographic details, socioeconomic status, history of mother, risk factors, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and symptomatology based on DSM-IV criteria. The time period of the study will be 2 years and at the end of the study, data will be analyzed using SPSS. Chi-squared test will be used for categorical variables and student t-test will be used for continuous variables and an association will be found between PPD and various risk factors included in the questionnaire.
Postpartum depression and its association with socioeconomic status Introduction Depression is a common mental illness in females (Kessler, 2003) and there is increased risk of developing mood disorders during the postpartum period (Kendell, 1987). There are three main types of postpartum mood disorders. These include postpartum blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Postpartum blues are the most common of the three types and the symptoms usually appear in the first week of delivery. The prevalence ranges from 30-75%.
Postpartum psychosis usually appears within first two weeks of delivery (Kendell, 1987). It is a severe condition and requires treatment. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common, nonpsychotic, disabling entity and its prevalence is varies from 0. 5-60. 8% in different populations. This difference in the prevalence in literature is due to different definitions of PDD used. The two main diagnostic criteria used for diagnosis of PPD are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IVTR; APA, 2000) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10; WHO, 2007).
DSM-IV categorizes PPD as a major depressive disorder with the symptoms appearing in the first four weeks after delivery. On the other hand, ICD-10 categorizes PPD as a minor mental disorder with symptoms appearing in the first six weeks of delivery. The symptoms of PPD include low mood, sleep disturbance, loss of interest in daily activities, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, loss of libido, feelings of guilt and hopelessness, suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts (WHO, 2007).