Positie discrimination

Consider the extent to which it is advisable to conduct worldwide immunisations against a particular emerging health threat, such as Avian or Swine Flu. Might such action be possible and/or advisable in the near future? Outline Introduction Using the news about Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever introduces the question about the worldwide immunisation, the importance of immunisation, brief introduction of positive and negative effects and my opinions of related questions. Body 1 Paragraph 2 will mainly state the infeasibility of global vaccination in parts. There is a large number of kinds of epidemic.

Barriers and limitations from different areas. Paragraph 3 will describe disadvantages of global vaccination in parts. Resources waste Immunisation itself will bring secure issue and cause negative effects. Body 2 Paragraph 4 will describe the possibility of integrating the global information to and resources to prevent and treat one kind of epidemics. Mature information transmission technology International organizations gather more power to focus on one outbreak epidemic Paragraph 5 will illustrate the advantages for integrating.

Easier to discover solution for one specific disease Student ID: 27342271 Developing countries can follow successful experience from developed ones. Give more equal opportunities to people to access to vaccination by transparent information. Conclusion Finally summarising the disadvantages and infeasibility of global vaccination and the necessity of integrating all world epidemic information to prevent people from infection and to confront future challenges in disease treatment field. ? Student ID: 27342271 Nearly the sudden outbreak of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in many Africa areas catches people attentions from every corner of the world.

It is a kind of high mortality diseases caused by Ebola virus, initially found in the region of Ebola River, and until now there are not any effective treatments to cure this terrible epidemic. Although no specifically powerful remedy for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever can be discovered presently, this unexpected explosion still gave us an alarm for considering the global vaccination in a good time. For various epidemics which can break up suddenly such as SARS and Bird Flu, it might be a wisdom idea to lead a universal immunization to face and combat potential health challenges in the future.

However this conception can not be accepted by many people for several reasons in different aspects. In my opinion, immunizing people for a specific kind of diseases in a worldwide range cannot implement at the current conditions (Amarasinghe, 2013) and is not necessary, but integrating world resource and information to establish a rapid response plan would be reliable and useful to improve health caring. Every time when a high fatal infectious disease outbreak, it usually brings a huge range of panic in some regions especially the eruption area.

This often gives people a misunderstanding that we need to prevent us from these epidemics by immunization, and the more kinds of vaccine we get injected, the more secure we will be. But most times, it is unnecessary for everyone to have an inoculation and also infeasible to achieve the immunization globally. Initially, there is a large number of kinds of epidemic, therefore in terms of techniques, it is impossible that scientists develop all vaccines for every kind of epidemic, even for some diseases, for instance HIV and cancer which we have not discover a useful drug or therapy yet.

Furthermore to conduct worldwide immunization would confront many barriers and limitations such as finance shortage, regional conflict and mind obstacle. For example, according to Student ID: 27342271 Kathleen’s (2012) retrospective report about the effectiveness of a lager coverage vaccination for polio in several areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan we can see that rates of infection in poorer and conflict places still kept a high figure, even though international organizations supported sufficient free vaccines.

The reasons for these phenomena appear to be more apparent; without a peaceful environment, though poor or developing countries are offered free and effective vaccines, only less than half of all infants would get injection as a result of weak transportation and limited information transmission. Just as Ananada Amarsinghe (2012) said that without equal opportunities to approach it was difficult to achieve a successful global immunization. Apart from this, the financial shortage is also a large problem, and for many for countries the first mission might be to solve food problem.

According to Charung Muangchana’ research in Thailand (2011), it would spend approximately 21. 0 million US dollars to give a vaccine to newborns. The resource waste might be another issue for consideration, if we try to extend this action over the world. It is factual that not all the high mortality epidemics would break out frequently and happen in widely areas. For example when SARS emerged in China in 2003, it was the first time for Chinese people to confront this disease and it was controlled quickly. From then on, it has not happened again.

Therefore it is not necessary to immunize people all over the world if we control the infection areas and pay attention to cut down the transmissions and main spread sources. Turning to another important issue is that immunization sometimes will bring serious negative effects especially for infants even though some mature vaccines such as BCG vaccine may still evoke allergic effect. (Bourdin Trunz 2006) As P Davies’s (2002) research said if parents searched the word ‘vaccination’ on the internet, there were approximately 43% of contents containing anti-vaccination information on the top 10 results.

Certainly we can not deny that some Student ID: 27342271 websites would exaggerate drugs negative effect, but we should focus on the fact that vaccination also is not a safe way all the times. Although to complete a worldwide immunization is an unnecessary and impossible work, it is more likely to integrate the global information and resources to prevent and treat one kind of epidemics. Initially, the information transmission technology has been developed maturely, which is able to share enormous data about every kind of infectious diseases over the world.

Secondly, if an epidemic break out in some remote or poor areas where people live in are not able to conquer disease independently, the international health organizations will collect useful data and arrange special aid group to related areas to manipulate effective actions save patients and prevent virus infecting. This kind of rescue which gathers the whole world power would be faster and more successful. In order to achieve this, every country should share their data in epidemic medical field with no delay and establishing the whole world epidemic prevention and precaution institution is the key.

There are many successful examples, for instance the program of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine which had been established and improved in the United States (Linda R. 2014). The advantages for integrating are quite obvious. When regarding the world epidemic issues as a whole, the solution targeting one special epidemic would become easier to discover. This means that if an epidemic erupts, the related labs over the world would temporarily devote energy to this disease. Consequently, the process of developing an effective drug or vaccine would become shorten greatly.

Besides, for many developing countries, they may still not establish a long-time or impactful institution to tackle a particular disease, hence it would be helpful for them to follow developed countries experience to Student ID: 27342271 organize appropriate institution. Moreover information sharing which make the pharmaceutical process and critical ingredients more transparent would give people more equal opportunities to access vaccines or medicines. This would avoid situation that some companies attempt to seize huge benefits from vaccine developing.

After all, although gaps between developed countries and developing countries can not be eliminated currently even in the near future, lives are precious for everyone. Finally, as far as I concerted a worldwide vaccination may not be necessary and it can also hardly to achieve in the future, but this does not mean that we should still confront health challenge separately. It is very necessary to establish a global institution to integrate all the information for all kinds of epidemics and share these crucial data free for everyone.

Further this institution should be responsible for organizing and directing global infectious illness precaution in case the disastrous epidemic outbreak leads to the universal powerlessness and panic. Words 1122 Student ID: 27342271 REFERENCE: Davies, P. , Chapman, S. , Leask, J. (2002) ‘Antivaccination activists on the world wide web’. _Journal of Arch Dis Child_, 87, 22-25. Trunz, B. B. , Fine, P. , Dye, C. (2006) ‘Effect of BCG vaccination on childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis worldwide: a meta-analysis and assessment of cost-effectiveness’.

Journal of Lancet_, 367:11, 73-80. Muangchana, C. , Riewpaiboon, A. , Jiamsiri, S. , Thamapornpilas, P. , Warinsatiand, P. , (2011) ‘Economic analysis for evidence-based policy-making on a national immunization program: A case of rotavirus vaccine in Thailand’, _Journal of Vaccine_, 30, 2839-2847. Amarasinghe, A. , Black, S. , Bonhoeffer, J. , Sandra, M. , Carvalho, S. M. D. , (2013) ‘Effective vaccine safety systems in all countries:

A challenge for more equitable access to immunization’ _Journal of Vaccine_, 31s, B108-B114. O’Reilly, K.M. , Durry, E. , Islam, O. , Quddus, A. , Abid, N. , Mir, T. P. , Tangermann, R. H. , Aylward, R. B. , Grassly, N. C. ,(2012) ‘The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2001-11: a retrospective analysis’ _Journal of Lancet_, 380:4, 91-98. Linda, R. D. , (2014) ‘Safety and Success of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Time for a Robust Vaccination Program in the United States and Worldwide’ _Journal of Clinical Therapeutics_, 36, 4-7. ? PAGE ? 7?

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