Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the common cases encountered in medical practice. The National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that UTI’s account for about 8. 3 million doctor visits each year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004). The rate of urinary tract infections in women is about 20% yearly compared with a rate of 0. 1% in men, and it accounts for 40% of all nosocomial infections (Marchiondo, 1998). Majority of UTI’s are caused by bacteria common to the intestinal environment (e. g. , Escherichia coli).
These bacteria can colonize the perineal area and move into the urethra. Women are particularly at risk because of the short urethra and its proximity to the anal and vaginal areas (Kozier, 2004). The risk increases in cases where there is urethral trauma, irritation, or manipulation (Kozier, 2004). A patient who cannot void, who is unconscious, or critically ill often needs a catheter that stays in place for a long time. Some people, especially the elderly or those with nervous system disorders who lose bladder control, may need a catheter for life.
Narrowing the numerous risk factors to UTI down, the proponent intends to focus on the link between invasive tubes, urinary retention, UTI’s, and the use of portable bladder scans to address urinary retention and aid in bladder training. After employing three databases, namely Medline, Cinalh and Ebsco-host, the proponent established search on the broad idea of hospital acquired infections, to urinary tract infections, then Foley bag catheters, and subsequently portable bladder scans.
The resultant research question is Does the use of portable bladder scan by the nurses on unit helps to detect post residual urine and eventually helps to reduce UTIs by narrowing the chances of catheterization? The portable bladder scanner is a non-invasive ultrasonic instrument that measures urinary bladder volume (Addison, 2000). Among its uses include determining voiding efficiency, verifying empty bladder prior to pelvic or abdominal surgical procedures, aiding in intermittent self catheterization, recording post void residual volumes in post partum women, and obtaining post-void residual (PVR) measurement.
It effectively assesses the degree of retention, thus being an effective tool for nurses to inform patients of retained amount of urine, thus encouraging them to void further. This results to a lower number of patients being catheterized proving to be a big step in the prevention of UTI’s. The topic was selected because of a personal experience I had when I delivered a baby 16 months ago. I was catheterized for a week because of urinary retention secondary to the epidural analgesic side effects.
For the span of time for my catheterization, my bladder muscles (detrusor) lost tone and I couldn’t able to fully empty my bladder even after voiding. The use of portable bladder scan in the area has helped me gain control and strengthen my bladder muscles. It was a quick, effective, and non-invasive scan. This seeks to verify the link of portable bladder scans and its use to preventing UTI’s. Given the absence of an altered anatomy possibly interfering with the ultrasound waves, this device could be a good way to accomplish effective patient bladder training in the clinical area.
References Book: Kozier, B. , Erb, G., & Berman, A. (2004) Fundamentals of Nursing. Seventh Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Journals: Addison, R. (2000) A guide to bladder ultrasound. Nursing Times 96, 40 Marchiondo, K. (1998) A new look at urinary tract infection. American Journal of Nursing, 98 (3), 34-39 Organization Website: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (September 2004). Ambulatory Care Visits to Physician Offices, Hospital Outpatient Departments, and Emergency Departments. Retrieved February 2009 from http://kidney. niddk. nih. gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/