Physically and mentally healthy

Baddely’s experiments into temperature on divers shows the effects on temperature but does not account for individual differences. Individual differences shows that two humans are not the same, the effects of any external factor can have a different effect on them. This is true with temperature, two humans may feel a different temperature is suitable for different activities, depending on personal feelings. Therefore Baddely’s experiment may be true for the divers used but other people who are of different ages or are of different nationalities and therefore used to different temperatures it would not have the same effect.

Ethnocentrism is being unable to conceptualise or imagine ideas, social beliefs, or the world form any other viewpoint other than that of one’s own particular culture or social group. The belief that one’s own ethnic group, nation or religion is superior to all others. Cohen’s 1980 study on noise was only carried out on Americans this makes it ethnocentric because they have tried to say that this is true for all other cultures which may not be true. For this same reason it is not generalisable because only American school children were used so the effects may only be so detrimental on them, and there may be less severe or no effects on the rest of the population.

Opportunity sampling was used to select participants for most of the experiments. Opportunity sampling simply involves selecting those subjects that are around and available at the time. An effort may be made to not be biased in selecting particular types of subject. It is quick, convenient and often the most economical method of sampling. However it gives very unrepresentative sample and is sometime biased.

Mayo’s study on illumination suffered badly from demand characteristics. It showed that whether the light was increased or decreased the productivity increased. The productivity didn’t increase as a result of the lighting change but it was shown that it was because of the extra attention given to the workers. Although this did highlight the importance of making an experiment free from demand characteristics. Mayo’s study although it suffered from demand characteristics it was ecologically valid because it was conducted in the place of work. So it was a much more real experiment than if it was conducted in a lab.

Suggest how shift work may be organised to minimise its potentially adverse effects. Around 17% of all employees in the UK, some 4.1m people, work shifts be this evenings, nights or weekends. Some industries such as the medical profession and security work have always been associated with shift work, but the advent of 24-hour banking and shopping has led to an increase in the number of people who work shifts.

Unfortunately, our bodies weren’t designed to be awake at night and asleep during the day. So it can be difficult for shift workers to adjust to working different hours. According to Simon Folkard, professor of psychology at the University of Wales, Swansea: “People working shifts can make adjustments to ensure that they can cope with working nights, particularly during the early hours of the morning when people are most likely to fall asleep.”

He advises: “It’s important during these twilight hours at around two or three in the morning for night workers to make sure that they have enough stimulating work to do. Also simple, basic things like not being too warm or comfortable and having plenty of light all help to maintain alertness.” Staying awake and alert is what night workers find most difficult. But relying on stimulants such as caffeine to keep awake is not the answer.

“While it’s true that drinking lots of cups of coffee will keep you awake, it will also prevent you from going to sleep in the morning. The key to adjusting to night work is for people to take their time off work seriously; and make sure that they get enough sleep during the day so that they remain physically and mentally healthy,” explains Alexander Wedderburn, a retired psychology professor.

So, if you have to work night shifts how can you make sure that you stay awake, alert and stimulated? Don’t eat big meals at night, this will only make you feel sleepy and sluggish. It’s not a good idea to go out before a night shift; this will make you feel tired especially if you have had alcohol. Doing some form of exercise before your night shift will give you energy and keep you alert. Try to keep busy – saving demanding tasks for the early hours of the morning will ensure that you have to stay alert.

Don’t rely on stimulants to keep you awake if you’re feeling sleepy. Go out for a walk and get some fresh air. Make sure that it isn’t too quiet – put the radio on. A certain shift should also be kept for at least three months, this gives the body a chance to get used to the new hours. If shifts are changed to frequently it will disrupt sleep and lead to decreased productivity and fatigue.

Computer technology’s positive impact on culture is overt. Human beings accomplish tasks faster, more efficiently, and in a greater number. In fact, most of society’s day-to-day tasks involve a computer at some point, whether we are corresponding in a professional …

There tends to be two broad bands when it comes to coping strategies for stress, these are short term avoidance/denial methods and longer term realisation techniques. The short term methods can also have a negative effect on the body both …

People may suffer disruption to their biological rhythms for a number of different reasons. For example people may suffer sleep disruption due to things such as shift work and jet lag. Many industries require shift work to keep going 24 …

Assess the impact of disrupted biological rhythms: The human body has the ability to adapt to changes or zeitgebers, as long as the changes occur gradually. When fast changes in zeitgebers occur the human bodily rhythms cannot adjust fast enough, this …

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