Pharmacology Of Chinese Herbal Medicine 99650 Group Assignment Document

Weight:? 15%? Due:? In? class? in? Week? Length:? The? duration? of? the? presentation? is? 12? 15? min? followed? by? a? 3? 5? min? question? time.?? Presentation? date:? 7th? May? 2015? ? Task:?? 1. Three? students? work? in? a? team? to?? prepare? a? presentation? using? Microsoft? PowerPoint?? based? on? an? original? scientific? research? article? for? a? selected? Chinese? herb? taught? in? the? lectures.? 2. Presentation:? Should? include? an? introduction,? aims? of? study/hypothesis,? brief? methods,? clear? results,? a? brief? discussion? and? summary/conclusions. ?

3. Students? should? provide?? your? comment? on? this? research? or? a? takehome? notes? a? the? end? of? presentation.? 4. Students? must? also? submit?? an? electronic? copy? of? the? PowerPoint? file? to? weiguo. [email protected] edu. au? prior? to? presentation? in? class.? ? Marking? criteria:?? 1. Thoroughness? of? preparation.? a. Choice? of? an? original? piece? of? Chinese? herbal? scientific? research? work? (experimental? or? clinical? research).? b. Background? to? the? research?? must? be?? covered?.? 2. Accuracy? of? information.?

a. Aims? of? the? study?? to? be?? clearly? stated?? with?? a? brief? description?? of?? methods? used.? b. A? clear? interpretation?? of?? results? and? conclusion.? 3. Presentation? skills.? a. Confidence,? clarity? and? effective? use? of? Powerpoint? for? the? presentation.? b. Facilitation? of? class? discussion? and? provision? of? appropriate? feedback? to? class? questions? adherence? to? a? time? frame:? kept? within? 15? mins.? ______________________________________________________________________________________? ? Draft? space? (Henry):? https://www. jadeinstitute. com/jade/herbal? detail? page. php? show=129&order=common_name? http://www. americandragon. com/Individualherbsupdate/SangZhi. html? http://plumdragonherbs. com/product/sang? zhi? mulberry?

twig? 1? oz/? http://medical? dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/glucosidase? https://books. google. com. au/books? id=0Xhdx4jGE2EC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42&dq=?? glucosidase+digestion &source=bl&ots=hOd63? L_Rk&sig=RFKoTKRt9Ic9jaHHA2zvZRN0orQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PtUKVe7WF4rk8A WV6YDgDg&ved=0CK0BEOgBMBQ#v=onepage&q=?? glucosidase%20digestion&f=false? https://books. google. com. au/books? id=5zd_W_PUwvYC&pg=PA1077&lpg=PA1077&dq=?? glucosidase+dig estion&source=bl&ots=SWtkwt_Q9C&sig=0lZx7nfYhgSEowXj54RRlfSGKu4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PtUKVe7WF 4rk8AWV6YDgDg&ved=0CK8BEOgBMBU#v=onepage&q=?? glucosidase%20digestion&f=false? ? Draft? space? (Chris):? ?

Draft? space? (Sarah):? ______________________________________________________________________________________? ? Sang? Zhi? (???? )? (for? the? lecturer? only)? Presentation? notes? by? Henry? Xiao,? Chris? Li? and? Sarah? Djebbouri? Scientific? research? article? name:? Alpha? glucosidase? inhibition? from? a? Chinese? medical? herb? (Ramulus? mori)? in? normal? and? diabetic? rats? and? mice? Raw? Sangzhi? (Jade? Institute? 2007) Processed? Sangzhi Sangzhi? Powder?? (Plum? Dragon? Herbs? 2013) (C. A. I.? Corporation? 2015)? ? Common? English:? Mulberry? Twig? Pharmaceutical? Latin:? Ramulus? Mori? ?? Introduction? ?

So?what? is????? glucosidase?? 0 An? enzyme? (aka.? maltase)? in? the? intestinal? juice? (Chabner? 2004)? that? digests? starch? (Q.? Ashton? Acton? 2013)? or? complex? carbohydrates? into? glucose? molecules? (Aschenbrenner? and? Venable? 2009).? ? What? happens? when? it? is? inhibited?? 0 The? rate? of? starch? digestion? is? decreased? and? thereby? reduce? glucose? absorption? into? the? blood? (Aschenbrenner? and? Venable? 2009).? ? So? how? does? this????? glucosidase? inhibition? relate? to? diabetes?? 0 Given? that????? glucosidase? inhibition? lowers? blood? glucose? levels? (BGLs),? this? is? more? associated? with?type? 2? diabetes,? where? there? is? hyperglycaemia? and? insulin? resistance.?

Studies? have? shown? that????? glucosidase? inhibition? have? benefited? gycemic? control? and? insulin? levels? (Van? de? Laar? et? al.? 2004).? In? contrast,? type? 1? diabetes? is? due? to? the? deficiency? of? the? anti? diuretic? hormone? stored? in? the? posterior? pituitary,? which? is? responsible? for? water? retention? in? the? kidneys? and? not? high? BGLs.? ?? Background? ? The? idea? of????? glucosidase? inhibition? gave? rise? to? a? whole? new? type? of? oral? drug? marketed? as? ‘? Acarbose? ’?? (AB)? as? a? cure? for? type?

2? diabetes? in? the? early? 90s.? ? Since? then,? hundreds? of? TCM? herbs? were? screened? in? hopes? to? find? a? similar? approach? in? curing? type? 2? diabetes.? ? Ten? years? later,? a? clinical? research? article? was? published? examining? the? Sangzhi? as? a? potential? candidate? for? inhibiting????? glucosidase? activity? in? mice.? ? This? research? was? conducted? in? co? operation? by? the? Institute? of? Materia? Medica,? Peking? Union? Medical? College? and? the? Chinese? Academy? of? Medical? Science? in? Beijing,? China.? ?? ? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)? ? Study? Aim:? To? investigate? the? effects? of? Sang?

Zhi? (SZ)? on? the????? glucosidase? activity? in? normal? and? diabetic? mice/rats? and? compare? the? results? with? that? of? the? same? for? AB? (Ye? et? al.? 2002).? ?? Hypothesis:? SZ? is? expected? to? inhibit????? glucosidase? activities? similar? to? AB? (Ye? et? al.? 2002).? ?? Method:? Preparation? Herb? Preparation:? SZ? (purchased? from? Tong? Ren? Tang,? Beijing)? and? verified? by? the? Institutes? of? the? study? was? cut,? decocted? for? 2? hours,? cooled,? filtered,? concentrated? at? 50? 60°C? and? spray? dried.? ?? Mice/Rats? Preparation:? Male? Kunming? mice? (22? 28g)? and? Wistar? rats? (220? 240g)?

(from? the? Chinese? Academy? of? Medical? Sciences,? Beijing)? where? the? ones? rendered? diabetic? were? injected? with? Alloxan? 100mg/kg? body? weight? (BW)? and? 50mg/kg? BW? respectively,? where? BGL>11. 1mM.? ?? Before? the? clinical? tests,? normal? and? high? calorie? food? (50%? sucrose)? were? fed? to? the? animals? for? 2? weeks.? One? experimental? days,? eating? was? restricted? to? 3? hours? (8? 11am).? ?? Three? tests? were? conducted:? 1. Oral? sucrose? tolerance? test:? no? food? overnight? and? sucrose? the? next? day? at? 9am? (4g/kg? BW? orally),? where? for? the? diabetic? animals,? there? were? four?groups,? 1).? without? drug,? 2).? with? SZ? 1. 25g/kg? BW,? 3).? with? SZ? 2. 5g/kg? BW? and? 4).? with?

AB? 10mg/kg? BW.? Same? with? the? normal? animals,? however? an? extra? group? with? SZ? 5g/kg? BW? was? administered? for? observation.? 2. Oral? starch? tolerance? test:? no? food? overnight? and? starch? the? next? day? at? 9am? (3g/kg? BW? orally),? where? for? the? diabetic? animals,? there? were? four? groups,? 1).? without? drug,? 2).? with? SZ? 1. 25g/kg? BW,? 3).? with? SZ? 2. 5g/kg? BW? and? 4).? with? AB? 10mg/kg? BW.? Same? with? the? normal? animals,? however? an? extra? group? with? SZ? 5g/kg?

BW? was?administered? for? observation.? 3. Oral? glucose? tolerance? test:? no? food? overnight? and? glucose? the? next? day? at? 9am? (2g/kg? BW? orally),? where? for? the? diabetic? animals,? there? were? four? groups,? 1).? without? drug,? 2).? with? SZ? 1. 25g/kg? BW,? 3).? with? SZ? 2. 5g/kg? BW? and? 4).? with? AB? 10mg/kg? BW.? Same? with? the? normal? animals,? however? an? extra? group? with? SZ? 5g/kg? BW? was? administered? for? observation.? ?? Measurement? and? Analysis? of? Results? ? At? the? end? of? each? administration? of? sucrose/starch/glucose,?

BGLs? were? recorded? at? 0,? 30,? 60? and? 120? minute? intervals?with? the? Fructosamine? Determining? Kit? from? the? Beijing? Zhong? Shen? Biological? Project? High? technology? Company.? ? Fasting? blood? glucose? levels? (FBG)? was? measured? on? the? 11th,? 12th? and? 15th? days? and? similarly? the? non? FBG? levels? on? 12th,? 14th? and? 15th? days.? ? Statistical? analysis? of? variance? were? applied? to? the? data,? where? p? value? <? 0. 05? was? considered? significant? and? all? values? were? shown? as? mean? +/?? standard? deviation? (SD).? ?? Result:? SZ? decreased? BGL,? FBG? and?

Non? FBG? levels? significantly? similar? to? AB? ? Oral? sucrose? tolerance? test? (Ye?et? al.? 2002)? ? Oral? starch? tolerance? test? graph? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)?? However? there? was? no? graph? for? the? glucose? test? however? the? results? were? aligned? with? the? previous? 2? tests.? ?

Discussion? The? results? show? the? SZ? has? the? impacts? of? an????? glucosidase? inhibiter? and? that? SZ? can? be? regulated? through? diet? to? reduce? increases? in? BGL? in? post? starch? or? sucrose? diet? intakes? into? normal? alloxan? diabetic? mice.? This? contrasts? AB,? which? lowers? BGL? uncontrollably? even? in? normal? mice,? whereas? SZ? does? not? impact? glucose? absorption? at? all.?

Instead? SZ?delayed? quick? digestion? rates? and? the? peaks? in? postprandial? BGL.? Despite? these? impacts? were? similar? to? AB,? dietary? regulation? stood? out? to? be? the? difference? that? separated? SZ? and? AB.? ?? Conclusion? In? conclusion:? SZ? is? a? possible? cure? for? patients? with? type? 2? diabetes? or? with? continuous? hyperglycaemia? who? want? to? lower? their? BGLs,? given? that? SZ? reduced? the? FBG? and? non? FBG? levels? of? diabetic? mice/rats.? This? is? especially? effective? during? high? calorie? intakes? as? the? animals? on? such? a? diet? for? 2? weeks? resulted? in? decreased? mean?

BGLs.? As? of? current? clinical? research,? SZ? is? able? to? treat? Tendonitis? in? a? study,? where? 10? of? 15? patients? recovered,? however? SZ? was? collectively? examined? with? other? herbs? in? a? formula? (Cheng? et? al.? 2004).? Further? research? in? the? future? should? identify? the? underlying? biochemical? active? principles? responsible? for? this? effect? in? SZ.? ?? Summary? ???? glucosidase? inhibition? is? utilized? as? a? mechanism? in? anti? diabetic? drugs? such? as?? ‘? Acarbose? ’?? (AB)? for? type? 2? diabetes? given? its? ability? to? slow? down? metabolic? processes? of? starch? breakdown.? ?

Sangzhi? (SZ)?has? become? the? focal? of? a? research? study? determined? to? discover? its? effectiveness? in? this? mechanism? on? diabetic? mice? and? rats.? ? The? result? indicated? that? SZ? is? effective? in? treating? high? BGLs,? particularly? in? animals? of? high? calorie? intakes? and? relatively? safer? for? non? diabetic? animals? to? use? given? that? SZ? is? regulated? based? on? diet? intake.? In? conclusion,? the? next? focus? should? be? what? biochemical? processes? enable? SZ? to? behave? differently? to? the? direct? impact? of? AB? ?? References:? 1. Aschenbrenner,? D.? and? Venable,? S.? 2009,?? Drug? Therapy? in?

Nursing ? ,? Wolters? Kluwer? Health/Lippincott? Williams? &? Wilkins,? Philadelphia.? 2. C. A. I.? Corporation? 2015,?? Sang? Zhi? (100g) ? ,? viewed? 25? March? 2015,? <http://www. caicorporation. com/Sang? Zhi? 100g_p_2537. html>.? 3. Chabner,? D.? 2004,?? Language? of? Medicine? and? Miller? Keane? Encyclopedia? &? Dictionary? of? Medicine ? ,? Nursing? and? Allied? Heal,? W. B.? Saunders.? 4. Chen,? J. ,? Chen,? T.? and? Crampton,? L.? 2004,?? Chinese? Medical? Herbology? and? Pharmacology ? ,? Art? of? Medicine? Press,? City? of? Industry,? California.? 5. Jade? Institute,? 2007,??

Medicinal? Herb? Detail? Page ? ,?viewed? 19? March? 2015,? <https://www. jadeinstitute. com/jade/herbal? detail? page. php? show=129&order=common_name>.? 6. Q.? Ashton? Acton,? P.? 2013,?? Alpha? Amylases? Advances? in? Research? and? Application ? 😕 2013? Edition,? ScholarlyEditions.? 7. Plum? Dragon? Herbs,? 2013,?? Sang? Zhi???? Mulberry? Twig ? ,? viewed? 19? March? 2015,? <http://plumdragonherbs. com/product/sang? zhi? mulberry? twig? 1? oz/>.? 8. Van? de? Laar,? F. ,? Lucassen,? P. ,? Akkermans,? R. ,? van? de? Lisdonk,? E. ,? Rutten,? G.? and? van? Weel,? C.? 2004,? ‘Glucosidase? Inhibitors? for? Patients? With? Type? 2? Diabetes:?

Results? from?a? Cochrane? systematic? review? and? meta? analysis’,?? Diabetes? Care ? ,? vol? 28,? no? 1,? pp. 154? 163.? 9. Ye,? F. ,? Shen,? Z.? and? Xie,? M.? 2002,? ‘Alpha? glucosidase? inhibition? from? a? Chinese? medical? herb? (Ramulus? mori)? in? normal? and? diabetic? rats? and? mice’,?? Phytomedicine ? ,? vol? 9,? no? 2,? pp. 161? 166.? ? Appendix:? ? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)? ? ? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)? ? ? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)? ? ? ? ? Sangzhi? Scientific? Journal? Research? Article? Take? Home? Notes? by? Henry? X,? Chris? L? &? Sarah? D? ? Scientific? Journal? Research? Article? Name:? Alpha? glucosidase? inhibition? from? a?

Chinese? medical? herb? (Ramulus? mori)? in? normal? and? diabetic? rats? and? mice? ? Summary:? ???? glucosidase? inhibition? is? utilized? as? a? mechanism? in? anti? diabetic? drugs? such? as?? ‘? Acarbose? ’?? (AB)? for? type? 2? diabetes? given? its? ability? to? slow? down? metabolic? processes? of? starch? breakdown.? ? Sangzhi? (SZ)? has? become? the? focal? of? a? research? study? determined? to? discover? its? effectiveness? in? this? mechanism? on? diabetic? mice? and? rats.? ? The? result? indicated? that? SZ? is? effective? in? treating? high?

BGLs,? particularly? in? animals? of? high? calorie? intakes? and?relatively? safer? for? non? diabetic? animals? to? use? given? that? SZ? is? regulated? based? on? diet? intake.? In? conclusion,? the? next? focus? should? be? what? biochemical? processes? enable? SZ? to? behave? differently? to? the? direct? impact? of? AB? ? Result:? SZ? decreased? BGL,? FBG? and? Non? FBG? levels? significantly? similar? to? AB? ? Oral? sucrose? tolerance? test? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)? ?

Oral? starch? tolerance? test? graph? (Ye? et? al.? 2002)?? ?? Conclusion? In? conclusion:? SZ? is? a? possible? cure? for? patients? with? type? 2? diabetes? or? with? continuous? hyperglycaemia? who? want? to? lower?their? BGLs,? given? that? SZ? reduced? the? FBG? and? non? FBG? levels? of? diabetic? mice/rats.? This? is? especially? effective? during? high? calorie? intakes? as? the? animals? on? such? a? diet? for? 2? weeks? resulted? in? decreased? mean? BGLs.?

As? of? current? clinical? research,? SZ? is? able? to? treat? Tendonitis? in? a? study,? where? 10? of? 15? patients? recovered,? however? SZ? was? collectively? examined? with? other? herbs? in? a? formula? (Cheng? et? al.? 2004).? Further? research? in? the? future? should? identify? the? underlying? biochemical? active? principles? responsible? for? this? effect? in? SZ.?

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