Pharmacological Drug Usage

Nitroglycerin is used in the treatment of acute angina pectoris in patients suffering from coronary heart disease. It belongs to a class of vasodilators and is responsible for the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in order to increase the blood flow. For instant relief from an acute attack of angina, the patient should be in a sitting position and place a sublingual tablet under his tongue. If the pain does not regress, the dosage should be repeated every five minutes until 3 tablets are taken.

If the pain still remains, immediate medical help is required. Moreover, oral tablets may be given as a preventive measure before any activity that may cause angina. However, it is contraindicated in hypersensitivity to the drug, severe anemia, myocardial infarction, raised intracranial pressure, and Viagra, as it exacerbates the effects of the drug. The most common side effect of nitroglycerin is headache. High dosage of the drug may cause postural hypotension, increased heartbeat and facial flushing (Pfizer Inc. , 2005).

Oral glucose is administered to counteract the hypoglycemia caused by excessive use of insulin or its immunologic adverse effects. After being absorbed from the gut, it revives the glucose balance in the tissues as well as the blood preventing the brain from being permanently damaged. For patients with intact voluntary control, dosage should be 15-45g per oral for adults and 5-45g per oral for children. Although it does not have any contraindications, nausea is a common side effect of oral glucose (Drug: Oral Glucose, n. d. ).

A metered dose inhaler (MDI) is a pressurized device that contains bronchodilators used for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Before usage, the first step is to shake the device; start breathing in slowly from the mouth; keep the inhaler 2-3 inches away from the mouth and press it; keep breathing in; hold your breath for 10 seconds, and then exhale. The process is repeated till the prescribed number of puffs is inhaled. An interval of about 30 seconds each is necessary between the puffs (American Academy, 2009).

MDIs are either filled with ? -agonists or corticosteroids. The ? -agonists have a direct relaxing effect on the bronchial smooth muscle providing instant relief in mild asthma, while the corticosteroids provide long-term anti-inflammatory effects in severe asthma. The side-effects of ? -agonists that include increased heart rate, increased blood glucose level, and decreased magnesium and potassium in the blood, are much reduced when MDIs are used. Inhaled corticosteroids have almost no side-effects except perhaps the occurrence of thrush (Mycek, Harvey & Champe, 2000, p. 220-221).

Oxygen therapy refers to administration of oxygen at higher concentration than the atmosphere. It is used in the treatment of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as COPD, hypertension, myocardial infarction, low blood oxygen levels, respiratory distress syndrome, right-sided heart failure and carbon monoxide poisoning. Other uses include trauma and post-anesthetic recovery. Oxygen is administered to a patient either through an oxygen mask or a nasal cannula. Excessive use of oxygen may present with respiratory disturbances, oxygen poisoning and alveolar collapse (Boleyn & Costello, n. d. ).

Epinephrine is used in the treatment of anaphylactic shock, asthma and increased intraocular pressure. Furthermore, it is used with local anesthetics in order to prolong their effect. It may be administered to the patient in a variety of ways: intravenous, topical, inhalation, subcutaneous, depending upon the desired effects. It should not be administered to patients suffering from conditions like high blood pressure, cardiac problems, hypovolemic shock, and allergy to the drug. The side-effects of the drug may include cerebral hemorrhage, disturbances in the Nervous System, arrhythmias, and edema in the lungs (The Regional Emergency, n.

d. ). Activated charcoal is used as an antidote for various poisons, an antiflatulent, and for the purpose of lowering lipid concentrations in the blood. It is the characteristic adsorbing power of this drug that prevents the spread of poisons. Before usage, the container should be shaken thoroughly ensuring appropriate mixture of the charcoal within the liquid. It may be administered orally as well as a through a nasogastric tube. Contraindications of charcoal include open airway, risk of aspiration, and a possibility of gastrointestinal hemorrhage or perforation. Vomiting is the most common side-effect of this drug.

Prolonged doses may result in intestinal obstruction (Charcoal, 2009). References American Academy of Family Physicians. (2009, December). Metered-Dose Inhaler: How to use it correctly. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://familydoctor. org/online/famdocen/home/common/asthma/medications/040. html Boleyn, Maggie, & Costello, Angela M. (n. d. ). Oxygen Therapy. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://www. surgeryencyclopedia. com/La-Pa/Oxygen-Therapy. html Charcoal. (2009). Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://www. drugs. com/npp/charcoal. html Drug: Oral Glucose. (n. d. ). Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://www. adaweb.

net/Portals/0/Paramedics/documents/oralglucose. pdf Maycek, Mary J. , Harvey, Richard A. , & Champe, Pamela C. (2000). Pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams & Wilkins. Pfizer Inc. (2005, December). Nitrostat. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://webcache. googleusercontent. com/search? q=cache%3AzYs6h2boHg0J%3Amedia. pfizer. com%2Ffiles%2Fproducts%2Fuspi_nitrostat. pdf+contraindications+of+nitroglycerin&hl=en&gl=pk The Regional Emergency Medical Services Council of New York City, Inc. (n. d. ). Epinephrine(Adrenalin). Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://eilat. sci. brooklyn. cuny. edu/newnyc/DRUGS/EPINEPHR. HTM

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