Also, sports psychologists believe that type A and B personalities affect the way sports persons perform. Type A personalities are normally impatient, time-conscious, insecure, highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation. Type B personalities are normally relaxed, patient, creative, imaginative, tolerant, and have low stress levels. An example of a Type A personality performer is Eric Cantona.
Therefore people with type A personality would usually prefer sports that are competitive and anger-releasing. Whereas people with type B personality normally prefer calm and less energetic sports. An example of a type B personality performer is Tiger Woods. Most sports psychologists now not only know that traits exist, but recognise that their effects can be modified by a situation. This is an interactionist approach. This means that behaviour (B) is a function of both the person (P, personality) and the environment (E).
So, B=PxE This theory is seen to be more of an individual approach because it displays that performers in similar sports do not always have the same behaviour. I agree strongly with this theory. This is because it doesn’t stereotype certain sports players and accounts for each individual’s own personality traits. I also agree with this because it seems to be displayed in everyday life and therefore is very accurate and simple.
In addition to the Interactionist Theory, another theory in sports psychology is the Social Learning Theory. Badura claims that we learn to deal with situations by observing others and my modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen. Social approval or disapproval reinforces our responses. Therefore behaviour is determined largely by the situation and the role of the personality is played down. This means that the Social Learning Theory is more a theory of behaviour, not personality.
The implications of social learning can be see within sport in the form of role models: For example: A netball player is in a game and accidently manages to trip up an opposing player. Instead of leaving her there to try and get the ball, she helps her up and says sorry. This would show the spectators watching that opposing teams can be nice to each other. If this behaviour is reinforced by clapping, the behaviour is more likely to be repeated.
I also agree with this theory. I believe that if someone sees their idol sports player exhibit certain behaviour, it is extremely likely for them to copy it. Although, this theory would probably be most accurate if said about children. This is because children tend to imitate people more than adults, even though adults do as well.
Motivation Motivation is split into 2 forms, these are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation – this means doing something only for the satisfaction, pleasure and gains for yourself derived from undertaking the behaviour. Extrinsic motivation – this means engaging in a behaviour because it is a means to an end and not because the activity is inherently pleasurable in any way. This may be to avoid consequences or to gain positive consequences.
For example: A girl wanted to join a netball team. – Intrinsic motivation would be if she wanted to join because she enjoys playing netball or for energy release. – Extrinsic motivation would me if she wanted to join to make new friends or to keep fit. Another form of motivation within these is achievement motivation. This focuses on what happens when we are faced with a choice of seeking out or avoiding challenging situations. There are two personality factors that could contribute to achievement motivation: Need to achieve and need to avoid failure.