Opioid – Anesthesia

The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the drugs Alcohol, Aspirin, Lidocaine, Morphine, Ketamine and succinylcholine. It’s important to understand what they are, what they do, how they are broken down in the body (physically and chemically) and what diseases they can either treat or cause. Certain drugs do certain things. Alcohol can lower inhibitions while Morphine can completely take away pain for hours at a time. I briefly explain these above drugs and give details about each. Keywords: drugs, Alcohol, Aspirin, Lidocaine, Morphine, Ketamine, Succinylcholine, pain, diseases, brain.

3 EFFECTS OF SELECTED DRUGS EFFECTS OF DRUGS When a patient goes “under” anesthesia, the brain function is suppressed for as long as the surgery continues. Anesthesia is like a deep sleep without feeling pain. There are many drugs that are used to allow the body to go into that “deep sleep”. Common drugs we still see today have been used to suppress pain, even for centuries. Alcohol, Aspirin, Lidocaine, Morphine, Ketamine and succinylcholine are just some of the drugs used during anesthesia. It’s important to understand that such ways are relatively new to medicine, even just the past 100 years.

Before the use of anesthesia, almost no controlled pain medicines were used and doctors performed surgeries of live patients who felt the pain (Mayo 2014). Through technological advance in science and pain medicine, we are now able to effectively perform more invasive surgery without actually having the patients be in pain. Alcohol alleviates pains and allows the body to be in a sort of “zombie” trance. Alcohol helps block the nerves by interrupting pain signals from the brain, or slow them down at least.

With drinking heavy proof alcohol or even alcohol in mass quantities, patients become so drunk that vision is impaired, pain is lessen and inhibitions start to dwindle away. Alcohol allows the muscles to relax and body to relax as well. Even with the benefit of using alcohol, it’s still not enough to completely alleviate pain. People can develop alcoholism with the intake of too much alcohol and could become dependent on it the rest of their lives, thus creating the disease alcoholism. Aspirins are medicines that can treat body pain. Aspirins block the pain signal from the part of the body to the brain via a neurotransmitter. Aspirins are used for fever and inflammation.

When Aspirin is taken in small doses, even in adults, it can help reduce the risk of heart disease and strokes. 4 EFFECTS OF SELECTED DRUGS Lidocaine is a local anesthetic. A local anesthetic is one that is injected or used at a specific site on your body, like eye surgery. Lidocaine can also be topical, or rubbed into the skin. Lidocaine blocks signals to the brain that are sent by nerve impulses or endings on the skin so the brain doesn’t receive the signal (Jahormi 2012). Lidocaine actually blocks the sodium channels of the cell membrane that are used for signal sending.

Removing the cataracts of the eye or a specific skin disease could be treated with the use of Lidocaine. It is mostly used for a quick procedure. Morphine is a much stronger drug compared to others where it can completely relieve all body pain. Morphine is used in many patients who have had major surgery and even older adults who have stopped eating and are at their end of life stage. It’s a type of medication that actually will slow down and stop pain from nerves in the spine that send/receive pain signals. Morphine can stop pain from morphine receptors all over the body (Jahormi 2012).

Morphine is usually used in a medical/hospital setting and can be taking by mouth or injected into the body via needle, drip or pick line. There are many diseases that can be impacted by the use of morphine like Liver Disease, hypothyroidism and hypotension. Morphine is not sold over the counter and is prescribed by a doctor as a need-based medication, like many other pain medications. Ketamine is a type of anesthesia that is used before surgeries are performed. It works so that the brain inhibits sensations that are painful. It’s not a medication typically used in patients with hypertension because it could raise blood pressure.

It is usually injected but can also be orally taken. In other cases than surgery, Ketamine is also used as a strong antidepressant. There are molecules in the cells that have receptors for glutamate, which is the transmission port for nerve impulses. Those receptors are dulled so that no pain is felt and no signals are sent to the brain (Jahormi 2012). 5 EFFECTS OF SELECTED DRUGS Succinylcholine is a little different from a typical pain relieving drug that is normally seen on the market. It is an ACH receptor agonist. In other words, it relaxes the muscles for a short amount of time.

It can be seen as sort of tranquilizer, like the ones used for horses. It is a neuromuscular blocker. It depolarizes the endplates of receptors, blocking pain. It is injected intravenously (UM 2015). The use of this drug can run the risk of developing the disease Hyperkalemia which is when the blood contains too much potassium. While all these drugs have a great benefit in relieving pain and causing to body to prevent pain to be felt, there are also many risks and diseases it can be a factor to. These medications should always be used with caution. 6 EFFECTS OF SELECTED DRUGS.

REFERENCES Jahromi, V. H. (2012, Janurary). Comparison between effect of Lidocaine, Morphine and Ketamine Spray on Post-tonsillectomy pain in children. Retrieved from Anesthesiology in Pain Medicine: http://anesthpain. com/? page=article&article_id=4092 Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Phantom Pain. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from Mayo Clinic: http://www. mayoclinic. org/diseases-conditions/phantom-pain/basics/treatment/con- 20023268 Universtiy of Massachusets Nursing. (n. d. ). NSAIDS. Retrieved 2015, from TNEEL SELF STUDY: http://www. tneel. uic. edu/tneel-ss/demo/comfort/frame3. asp.

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Anesthesia affects the nerve cells or the neurons by changing the course of sodium molecules through its membranes. The mechanism is not really known because anesthetics are not known to attach to any receptor nor does it affect any transmission …

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Surgical procedures are made possible because of the development of anesthesia. Without any way of reducing pain, most surgeries could not be possible. Anesthesia is the loss of pain sensation through administration of anesthetics. It can be used in medical …

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