Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia. It is hospital acquired infection that the hospitals eat up the cost of treatment. Although pneumonia can be prevented, it is still an infection that we find in hospitals all across the United States. Pneumonia is a dangerous infection in patients who are already immunosuppressed and get pneumonia as a secondary infection. Preventative measures need to be taken to prevent such infections in the perioperative stages. Nursing Concepts Module A Amy Kramer 01/23/13 Introduction Pseudomonas aeroginosa is the most common pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia.
It is found in soil, around water, and in the healthcare setting around the sinks, water, irrigating solutions, and nebulizers on respiratory equipment. (Williams, Hopper. P. 113. ) Nosocomial infections are an infection that a patient develops during their stay at the hospital. The patients’ health status/condition plays a major role in whether the infection will be acquired or not. If you are in the hospital, you have to be there for a reason and also commonly debilitated, malnourished, or immunocompromised. The more of an invasive procedure and the more debilitated the patient is makes them more susceptible to get the infection.
Prevention Measures The most effective way to prevent and control spread of infections is effective hand hygiene. Most of the infections are spread through the hands of healthcare providers from one patient to the next because of a lack of hand hygiene and other such safety precautions. Handwashing should be performed after every patient and before seeing a new patient, also before and after gloving. Patients should not be scared to ask the nurse or healthcare provider to wash their hands, but also understand the importance of washing their own hands during their hospital stay.
Care providers should also take into fact that the safety precautions and follow them, cleaning stethoscopes inbetween patients with a alcohol wipe or pad, following isolation precautions such as gowning a gloving can also prevent patient to patient spreading of bacteria. Patient Education Patients should be aware that they may acquire a secondary infection due to being immunocompromised. Patients with endotracheal, nasotracheal, or tracheostomy tubes because they bypass the normal defenses of the upper respiratory tract.
Patients also who come in and have chest surgery and already not being able to fight off an infection, such as cancer patients are also more likely to gather the infection. Most deep cough and incentive spirometer exercises can help prevent pneumonia in relation to getting the infection out of the body as soon as possible. Signs and Symptoms Patients with pneumonia will tend to have a fever, shaking, dyspnea, productive cough, crackles and wheezes. Sputnum is purulent and may be blood tinged. Crackles are wheezes are heard because of the blockages of the alveoli and airways.
Bacterial infections such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause fatigue, sore throat, dry cough, and of course nausea and vomiting. Such symptoms may cause complications in patients with other chronic diseases, and may cause the infection to spread to other parts of the body. Diagnostic Tests and Treatments A chest X-ray may be ordered to show if there is any presence of leakage into the alveoli from inflammation. Doctors may order a culture of the sputnum and blood collected to determine what bacteria is causing the infection, and the proper way of treatment.
Treatments may include antibiotics, supplemental oxygen, bronchodialators, and expectorants. But always remember like any infection, fluids and rest are a good start. Conclusion It is important that as health care professionals, we remember the importance of handwashing throughout the day, in and out of patients rooms and the importance of holistic care. The faster a patient comes out of surgery and the quicker they are up and moving, and participating in there cough exercise the less likely they are to get a HA-pneumonia infection.
I believe that preventive measures are very important in caring for a patients, because you don’t want them to be anymore sick than they already are. Hospitals’ set the precaution standards to protect its employees and other patients from serious life threatening infections, remembering and not being lazy is the key.
References Shier, D. , Butler, J. , Lewis, R. (2010). Hole’s Human Anatomy & Physiology (12th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Williams, L. , Hopper, P. , (2011). Medical Surgical Nursing (4th ed). Philadelphia, PA: Davis Company http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001201.