Muscular system

Different muscle types in the body depends on where the muscle is in the body there are three different types of muscle in the human body there is cardiac ( heart) these muscles work without us thinking about it. Even when we are sleeping these muscles are capable of automatic contractions. Cardiac muscles contract to allow blood to be pumped from the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body.Then there are involuntary muscles which also work without us thinking about it, these muscles are also known as smooth muscles. There are mainly found in the intestine, stomach, veins and in the walls of arteries.

Last there are voluntary muscles, with these muscles we have got full conscious control over what actions and movements these muscles make. They can also be involved in voluntary reflexes this is also known as striated or skeletal muscle, these muscles are attached to the bone to make the skeleton move when we want it to such as when we move our arm to pick something up. This kind of muscle is the largest group in the human body.

The skeletal muscles are wrapped up in tough substance called perimysuim this is lubricated so that the muscles which are besides each other are still able to move. Each muscle contains lots of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscle fibre is made up of 2 proteins, actin and myosin. The skeletal muscles work when the contractions of the muscles cause forces which make movement, muscle fibres which are made of the 2 proteins: actin and myosin these work in the same way as a deck of cards being pushed together.

The skeletal muscles work across joints and they are also attached together by cords which are also known as tendons, the muscles work together and relax and contract to make movement. Origin and insertion When muscles contract only one part of the bone can move at a time so the other part has got to stay put, the point where the tendon attaches to the bone is known as insertion and origin, origin is where the tendons of the muscles join to the stationary ones. The insertion means that the tendons of muscles join to the moving bones and not to the stationary ones.

What makes a muscle contract? We have got full conscious control over all of our skeleton and our muscles, the muscles will on contract when we want them to and when we do the central nervous system (CNS) will send messages to the brain to tell the muscle to move and contract. Where do muscles get their energy from? All muscles need energy to work properly, muscles energy is created through cellular respiration, usually when oxygen is available. The respiration is aerobic respiration not anaerobic. Skeletal muscles need stimulus form the central nervous system also forming air containing oxygen and food containing glucose to create energy, however if the oxygen supply in the air is low then anaerobic respiration can occur, each muscle contains muscle fibres these can either be: fast twitch or slow twitch.

Each type of fibre has got certain properties and differences which can be compared to the story about the “tortoise and the hare”. Which is a tortoise and a hare have a race, the hare shoots off n the tortoise takes his time taking one step at a time the hare is very confident that he will win the race, maybe a bit over confident because he thinks he is so far in front that the tortoise will never catch up so the hare ahs a nap and goes to sleep, a while after the tortoise passes the hare and slowly but steadily wins the race. The moral of this story is to take your time don’t rush things and don’t be too over confident.

Short term effects on the muscular system If exercise is done temporary increase in size on the muscular system. This is because the requirements increase in blood flow to the area which you are exercising on, this makes the blood vessels fill up and forces water into the muscle facia, up to 72 hours after exercise the muscles may feel tired and sore this is because of a substance in the body called lactic acid invading the working area and because of minute tears in the muscle fibres which happened during exercise.

Long term effects If the exercise is done properly it cans massively improve the conditions of the tendons, ligaments and the muscles themselves. If you understand how to exercise properly and apply it well then you can improve your muscles including the size, strength, power, tone and it can increase the speed in which you can move at and increase your stamina this can be done by muscular hypertrophy. In return this improves the overall appearance of the body physical functioning confidence and self esteem. Safe and efficient flexibility exercise programmes can improve the range of motions and help to prevent injuries around joints. The muscular system helps people to lower their cholesterol and also helps to prevent osteoposis. So by exercising it increases the muscle mass which helps raise the persons metabolism this means that more food eaten by the person means more calories but with a high metabolic rate then the person can burn more calories without actually exercising.

Cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system it made up of blood, blood vessels, there are three types of blood vessel they are: arteries, veins and capillaries these are situated all around the body the capillaries are in the heart which pump blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and around the body to use up the oxygen. The blood does the job of a non-stop counter service, it retrieves chemicals from all around the body and transports them to other parts to either be put to use or disposed of.

There are 4 parts which make up the blood of the human body. 1. plasma, plasma is a liquid part in the blood it is straw coloured and it mains role within the blood is to transport carbon dioxide (CO2) away from the cells ad to the lungs for removal from the body. Glucose which is in the small intestine is moved to cells to be used to make energy, nutrients from the small to the cells for use in growth and repair in the body, other waste products are moved away from cells to be removed from the body e.g. urea.

2. White blood cells are in the body to fight disease, engulf invading microbes and to help protect the body they do this by producing anti bodies which help attack disease, these blood cells have got a nucleus. 3. platelets, these are small pieces of cells, platelets have not got a nucleus and their main goal is to stop bleeding from the body e.g. when we cut our selves, they do this by clumping together in a mesh type formation when blood vessels are damaged this mesh work creates a blood clot to stop the bleeding. 4. red blood ells this is the last part of the blood, they have got no nucleus and they are very flexible this is so the can go through small capillaries, their main role is to collect oxygen and carry it to all of the cells in the body which will then use it to create energy. In order to do this the red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which will combine with the oxygen in the cells to become oxy-haemoglobin.

Introduction             Body movement is the main function of the muscular and the skeletal system.  This is a system consisting of the skeletal muscles and the bones involved in movement of the body.  The two are connected by a connective …

The aim of this course is to improve my fitness and strength in rugby. This course will make my cardio vascular muscle stronger so therefore I will have a stronger healthier heart. I want to be able to withstand a …

The three components that I am wishing to develop are cardio vascular endurance, muscular endurance and upper body strength. This is to try and enhance the performance of my rugby. My position of open side flanker will require me to …

Weight Training – Weight training can be for any person, regardless of age, gender, height and weight. Different people have different Somatotype so…different people require different training. The training routine for strength and endurance is based on your 1 rep …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out