Mother infant attachment is part of an instinctual-emotional system

This research is all based on cognitive psychology. The cognitive area of psychology focuses primarily with thinking and mental processes. There are two key assumptions in the cognitive approach. Firstly the Information processing assumption: this assumption comes from the belief that information flows from an external stimuli and results in a response. The second key assumption is the computer analogy assumption. This assumption has obvious links with the previous one. We learn from experience, but also have innate knowledge (hardwired).

This research is all on the topic of or relates to the human memory and forgetting. There are already many theories about how memory works. One of the favored theories on how memory functions, is the levels of processing approach. This approach was put forward by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. They argued that it is useful to think about memory as a byproduct of information processing. They believe whether someone remembers something depends on how it is processed. Most of the events in our day to day lives are so trivial that nothing is thought of them, so they are quickly forgotten.

Big events or experiences are often remembered better because of the amount of consideration we put into processing the information. shallow processing produces only small memory traces, while deep mental processes create far more elaborate and longer lasting memory traces. Craik and Lockhart suggested that there are three levels of processing: Structural-what something looks like? Phonetic-what something sounds like? Semantic-what something means? The deepest level of processing is semantic because semantic analysis results in deeper processing.

Structural is the shallowest level of processing because structural analysis results in shallower processing. This approach was originally favoured for its move away from hypothetical rigid mental structures to more realistic mental processing. Support for this approach come from Craik and Tulvings study in 1975. Another theory to forgetting is the trace decay theory. Trace decay theory explains why forgetting increases with time. Memories are stored somewhere in the brain, many are impermanent but when learning takes place a permanent structural change or engram occurs.

An engram is a biochemical change, which takes place in the brain. It is the result of external stimulus. It is hypothesized to be a biochemical manifestation of memory via the permanent alteration of brain tissue. Atkinson and Shiffrin’s multi-store model is their attempt to describe how memory works. They suggest that there are four stages to memory: 1. Incoming information (external stimulus). 2. Sensory memory. 3. Short-term memory (STM). 4. Long-term memory (LTM). Rehearsal Sensory memory Short term memory Long term memory

This approach suggests that we can distinguish two very different stores each with its own characteristics. LTM is permanent, STM is easily erased if not rehearsed. STM is believed to hold about seven “bits” or “chunks” of information for around 20 seconds. Miller (1956) suggests that we can hold between 5 and 9 “chunks” of information depending on the person. This means we have about seven slots available in STM. How much information can be stored varies according to how well we are able to organize or chunk tie information.

Allot of information can be stored in chunks, this is called chunking. Chunks can be very large so that even though only seven chunks are recalled, allot of information can be stored. The size of a chunk can vary and information is often encoded. The capacity of long-term memory is though to be unlimited, as there is no one alive with a memory so full they could not learn anymore. The primacy recency affect, which can be shown on a serial position graph, supports the idea of separate STM and LTM.

The theory is that ease of learning an item depends upon its position in the list of items to be learned. Late items are recalled best, early items are recalled next best and middle items are recalled least well. This is because the beginning of the list has already passed into LTM and the end of the list is still in STM. The middle of the list is somewhere between the two stores. This theory was supported by Murdock’s research, which showed that people are more likely to recall words at the beginning and end of a list. This graph shows the affects of serial positioning.

With temporal duration the material held in the STM is relatively short-lived. Baddely and Hitch (1974) suggested that information may survive in the phonological loop for two seconds. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) believed it may last a little longer, although …

Memory is the ability to store and recall information which has either been experienced or learnt. There are two components, short-term and long-term memory. The nature of memory consists of duration (length of time), encoding (means of remembering) and capacity …

Imagine one morning you wake up to find you’ve completely lost your memory. How do you feel? You would be unable to neither do many things you take for granted such as remembering your name, age or where you lived …

The aim of this experiment was to try to establish whether participants would show better memory recall when asked to remember words presented in either a hierarchical or random format. This is called a two-tailed hypothesis. The null hypothesis will …

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