Definition and classification of mental disorders differ, but mental health professionals commonly accept the criteria guidelines listed in DSM , ICD and other psychiatry manuals. There isn’t, however, any single definition of mental disorders. Broadly, it is thought of as a significant behavioral or psychological pattern which is associated with stress, distress, disability and anxiety in an individual. Serious mental illness refers to severe and longer-lasting disorders while the phrase mental health problems may include mild and transitory issues. Classification of Mental Disorders
There are two widely accepted systems of classifying mental disorders to provide standardized diagnosis criteria. They are: 1. Chapter V of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Categories of Mental Disorders There are many categories of mental (or psychological) disorders and many different aspects of human behavior or personality that can become disordered. i. Fear or Anxiety Disorders
One of the most common forms of disorders is one related to fear or anxiety, or more specifically, the unusual intensity of fear or anxiety over a period of time. The categories in fear/anxiety disorders includes: phobia (general and specific), Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. ii. Affective State Disorder Affective states can also become disordered, including Mood Disorders, Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder (which defines unusually high or intensified mood states, known as mania or hypomania, alternating sporadically with normal or depressed mood).
iii. Psychotic Disorders Psychotic disorders which distort patterns of language use, perception and belief system include Schizophrenia and Delusional disorder. iv. Human Functioning Disorders – Disorder of Eating practices (including Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Exercise Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder); – Sleep disorders that disrupt regular sleep patterns like Insomnia; – Sexual or Sex Identity Disorders which include Dyspareunia or Gender Identity Disorder or Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality. v. Impulse Control Disorders
It includes individuals who are not capable of resisting urges/impulses to perform harmful acts. It includes Kleptomania (stealing), Pyromania (fire-setting) and Tic disorders. vi. Substance Use Disorders This category of disorders includes substance abuse disorder and addictive gambling. vii. Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder includes those disorders whereby people suffer disturbances in their memory, self-identity, and responsiveness to themselves and their environment.
This includes Depersonalization disorder (or Dissociative Identify Disorder), commonly called multiple personality disorder. viii. Memory or Cognitive Disorders Amnesia and Alzheimer’s disease are categories of Memory/Cognitive disorders. Other disorders include Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, Uncontrollable Anger Disorder, Video game Addiction, Internet Addiction Disorder, Passive- Aggressive Personality Disorder and Self Defeating Disorder (Cooper, 2005, p. 4).