Lung Cancer Final

Cancer, also known as neoplasm or malignant tumor is a disease associated with abnormal growth of the cells. These cells have a potential to spreading to other cells of the body. However, not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors, for instance, do not spread to other body parts. There are possible signs and symptoms associated with cancer; they include unexplained loss of weight, prolonged cough and change in movements of bowel among others. These symptoms may indicate cancer but can also be associated with other diseases (Falk, 2010). Lung cancer or carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma is a malignant tumor that occurs because of uncontrolled growth of cells. If untreated the tumor and spread to other body parts by a process of metastasis. Most cancers that originate in the lungs are primary carcinomas resulting from the epithelial cells.

The two types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. The symptoms associated with lung cancer are such as chest pains, weight loss, and shortness of the breath among others. Non-small cell lung cancer is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than carcinoma of small cell.

They are insensitive to chemotherapy compared to small cell carcinoma but are treated by surgical resection with intent to cure. Small cell carcinoma is the highly malignant type of cancer that mostly arises from cancer and other parts of our body such as the cervix, gastrointestinal tract among others. This type of carcinoma has the higher fraction of growth, earlier metastasis development and shorter doubling time (Argiris, 2012). Lung cancer is associated with staging that is the extent to which lung cancer tumor has spread to the body. Staging involves the evaluation of tumor size and either absence or presence of metastasis in organs or nodes of the lymph.

Understanding staging of the lung cancer tumor is LUNG CANCER 3 important in identifying the method of administering the treatment. It is also essential for prognosis of a patient. The higher tumor stage has the higher rate of prognosis than lower tumor stage. There are four stages of lung cancer. Stage one non-small lung cancer is characterized by the presence of cancerous cells in the tissues of the lungs, but the lymph nodes are not affected. It is the earliest stage at which most lung cancer is treated; it is also a stage with the long-term rate of survival. Stage one lung cancer is subdivided into two groups.

Stage 1A where the tumor as the length of less than one and half inches and stage 1B where the tumor has a length of more than one and half inches (A, 2013). Stage one lung cancer rarely has symptoms and only appears through x-ray. However, typical symptoms include the persistent attack of bronchitis, cough or breathe shortness. In this stage, symptoms such as weight loss or major fatigue are absent. Upon the treatment of stage one lung cancer, it is prone to recur, and another surgery is recommended. Radiation and Chemotherapy can also be used by treating this recurrence.

The patients with the history of smoking, they have a higher risk of developing a secondary tumor either in the lung itself or the other parts of the body. For treatment of stage one lung cancer, surgery is the treatment to choosing. There exist three types of surgery used in treating lung cancer. When the surgery is not possible because of the location of the tumor, a technique known as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is used. It’s less invasive than the traditional method of surgery. It is also common for the patients who cannot tolerate all the surgical procedures.

Radiotherapy is a method that is appropriate for inoperable stage one of lung cancer and can eventually result to cure (Falk, 2010). LUNG CANCER 4 An advanced method of treatment, known as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a technique used for stage one lung cancer for patients who cannot go through surgery for medical reasons. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are not recommended for stage 1A cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is used in stage 1B; it involves chemotherapy done after surgery with the aim of killing the cancer cells that remain after the surgery. The survival rate for stage one cancer is higher than the other stages.

For stage 1A, thesurv val rate is about fifty percent over the span of five years and about forty-five percent for stage 1B. However when stage one lung cancer is found with CT screening, the survival rate is very high at about ninety percent chance of survival. The problem is that more screening methods are yet to be developed (A, 2013). Stage two non-small lung cancer, it may spread to other lymph nodes or the wall of the chest, but it does not spread to other distant organs. Stage two non-small lung cancer is divided into stage 2 A and stage 2B depending on tumor size and if it is spreading to the lymph nodes.

If the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes in the non-small cell 2A cancer in the lymph nodes, the lungs on the same side as the lymph nodes are affected. They are maintained within the lungs or the bronchus. The tumor in stage 2A non-small lung cancer, the tumor is about one inch in length, and the growth of cancer has not grown into the membranes of the lungs. The main branches of the bronchus are not affected, and cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes. For the second category of stage two-lung cancer, the tumor has the length of about one and half-inch.

Cancer spreads into the bronchus and is about one inch below the carina. LUNG CANCER 5 Cancer also spreads to the lining of the lungs and cause inflammation of the carina that is the area to the right and the left bronchus. The patient’s airways can be clogged. If cancer has not spread to the nodes of the lymph, it is known as T2B, N0, and M 0, the features above indicate the tumor is between five- half and three seven- half inches (Falk, 2010). Stage 2 non-small cell cancer has two subcategories depending on tumor size and spread to the lymph nodes. For T2B, N1, MO, the tumor is between 2. 5 inches and 3.

5 inches and has spread to the bronchus by one inch. Cancer also spread to lung lining with inflammation in the Carina . if it has not spread to lymph nodes; it is classified as T3, N0, and M0, the tumor is more than 3. 5 inches (Argiris, 2012). The tumor also spread into the space of the lungs and membranes or the membrane sac surrounding the heart. The growth of cancer does not affect the carina, and the entire lung can be inflamed or collapse. More tumors are found on the lobe of the lung.

The treatment for stage 2 lung cancer patients; in which cancer is suspected has invadednext ly mph tissues; chemotherapy is performed before the procedure of surgery. This can limit the progression of the tumor or even shrink the tumor completely and improve successful resection (A, 2013). Stage three non-small cell lung cancer, cancer spreads from the lungs to the lymph or other structures such heart, esophagus, and trachea. This stage is classified into two categories as; stage 3A and stage 3B are depending on the location of tumor and the extent of spread to other tissues. About a third of all lung cancer diagnosed are in the third stage. LUNG CANCER 6 The stage is categorized into three according to TNM scale.

In Stage IIIA lung cancer, the tumor has not grown into the spaces of the heart and lymph. Cancer then spread to the lymph nodes and has not spread to the lobes of the lung. In N1 rating of lung cancer, the disease spreads to lymph nodes within lung or bronchus. The tumor is also larger than 7 centimeters (Argiris, 2012). In stage 3B, the tumor can have any size; it may have grown into the other organs and cause inflammation of the lung and cause pneumonia . it also spread to the collarbone of the lymph nodes. In N2, the tumor can be of any size and into the spaces of the lungs, heart and large blood vessels and backbone where the bronchus meets the trachea.

Tumors are also on both sides of the lungs, and the affected lymph is on same side as the tumor. The treatment for stage 3 cancer is the use of chemotherapy before the surgery to remove the tumor. The final stage of the lung cancer the tumor as metastasized through the cells of the body. it may also affect the liver, brain or the bones. it is the most advanced stage of lung cancer. The survival rate for five years is below ten percentage, in cancer treatment Center, there are numerous options for treatment (Falk, 2010).

Therapies that ease symptoms are provided. During this stage cancer spreads to another lung The cancer cells are located in a fluid of lungs (malignant effusion of pleural), they are also located in the fluid of heart (malignant effusion pericardia). For M1B stage, 4 cancer means is where it has spread to lymph nodes or bones, liver, kidney or the brain (A, 2013). LUNG CANCER 7 References A, G. (2013). Lung cancer. New York : NY : Oxford University Press. Argiris, A. (2012). Lung cancer. New York ,NY: Demos Mdical Pub. Falk, S. &. (2010). Lung cancer ( 3rd ed ). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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