Pharmacy as a profession requires detailed study and specialized skills in various subject areas. The main prerequisites courses for entry into the Pharmacy program are Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and English Language and one other- Zoology, Geography etc. Professional subjects studied during the course include: Professional Practice Introduction to Pharmacy Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics Pharmacy Calculations Pharmacology Biopharmaceutics Pharmacokinetics/Clinical Pharmacokinetics 1 Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Forensic Pharmacy Pharmacy Administration Pharmaceutical Analysis Professional Practice.
This course allows the students to extend their knowledge in a practical environment and to give advice on over the counter preparations in pharmacy. It discusses how they should communicate with patients/clients using open ended questions and lead on questions to ascertain pertinent information for recommending the best option for the patient/client. Introduction to Pharmacy Pharmacy as a profession dates back to times of the Egyptians and the Renaissance period.
Introduction to Pharmacy as a course initiate the retrospective view point of pharmacy practice and gives account of the evolution of the practice over the centuries.
Hence this course is a survey of the profession of pharmacy including its history, development, scope of practice, educational requirements, ethical foundations, regulation, contemporary issues, career opportunities, and prospects for the future. Pharmacognosy Since creation the herbs have been used for treatment and cure of diseases and illnesses.
This tradition was passed on orally, however, pharmacy has chosen to formalize this information and study the natural/herbal products their applications to therapeutics, how they are prepared and or isolated and to classify the herbal products.
In the course of study emphasis is placed on the biosynthesis of products such as carbohydrates glycosides, bitter principles, volatile oils, alkaloids. It is the study of plants/herbs and their biological applications. Pharmacy Calculations This is the building block for the practice of pharmacy and is one of the most important areas of study for the pharmacy specialist. Knowledge in other areas of Pharmacy is complimented by the mastery of this course.
To prepare and dispense medications, one must be capable of performing a variety of pharmaceutical calculations and be constantly aware of one fact-an error made in a dosage calculation can harm a patient. The study of this subcourse will help give you the knowledge and skill required to perform many types of dosage calculations. Pharmaceutics 2 This course integrates the Pharmacy calculations and chemistry which is needed in prescriptions and compounding of pharmaceutical preparations. It also deals with solubility and preparation of aqueous and non-aqueous pharmaceutical solutions and their relevant physicochemical properties.
Guiding the understanding of dosage forms; how and why certain drugs are of special design and the implications to quality health and compliance and or concordance to medication therapy. Pharmacology Traditionally pharmacy practice involved mainly compounding of product for treatment and relieve of ailments. Pharmacology is a branch of science that analysis animals, plants and herbs in understanding their effects on the human body, how different properties and chemicals present in the natural world around us react.
Today’s pharmacology educational programs are based around these core principles. Pharmacology is therefore the study of drugs and their effects on the body and biological systems, and draws upon several fields of science. It is considered to be a multidisciplinary approach to science, and draws from scientific fields such as: Biochemistry Analytical chemistry Genetics Physiology Microbiology Medicinal chemistry Pathology Immunology Cellular biology Molecular biology Chemotherapy Toxicology Cardiovascular pharmacology Biopharmaceutics.
Biopharmaceutics is the study of the interrelationship of the physicochemical properties of the drug [active pharmaceutical ingredient, (API)] and the drug product (dosage form in which the drug is fabricated) based on the biological performance of the drug; the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action.
Biopharmaceutics allows for rational design of drug products to deliver the drug at a specific rate to the body in order to optimize the therapeutic effect and minimize any adverse effect. Pharmacokinetics/Clinical Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics is the study of the process of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
The aim of applying pharmacokinetic principles is to individualize the dose of drug, 3 and optimize the outcome achieved in each patient. This is an integral part of drug development and rational use. Knowledge and application of pharmacokinetic principles leads to accelerated drug development, cost effective drug use and a reduced frequency of adverse effects and drug interactions.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics is an essential source of information for drug development scientists, clinical pharmacologists, physicians and pharmacists involved in this exciting and rapidly changing area. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
This branch of Pharmacy was developed in the hospital as Pharmacist sought to optimize drug therapy in patients to promote health, wellness and disease prevention, through collaboration with Physicians and other healthcare professionals. The basic components of clinical pharmacy practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Prescribing drugs[ Administering drugs Documenting professional services Reviewing drug use Communication Counseling Consulting Preventing Medication Errors Scope of clinical pharmacy: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Drug Information Drug Utilization Drug Evaluation and Selection Medication Therapy Management.
Formal Education and Training Program Disease State Management Application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) This is the integration and utilization of the knowledge of Pharmacy Calculations, Pharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Forensic Pharmacy Forensic pharmacists play an integral role in legal cases relating to malpractice, drunk and drugged driving and adverse side effects of certain drugs.
The necessary education/training to be a forensic pharmacist can be quite extensive, but the compensation is highly favorable, as 4 pharmacy of any kind is currently one of the highest-paying occupations in the United States.
Forensic pharmacists are involved with administrative hearings and civil and criminal trials. A few pharmacists are full-time forensic pharmacists who work for the government (e. g. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), state regulatory agencies, etc. ) or work as forensic toxicologists.
Pharmacy Administration Pharmacy administration programs prepare students to organize pharmacy services. Students learn to manage budgets, people, and supplies. They learn to estimate costs and advertise for customers. In addition, they learn about drug research and development.
Pharmaceutical Analysis Pharmaceutical Analysis explores a wide range of techniques used in the control of the quality of pharmaceuticals and the analytical aspects of drug development and manufacture. TYPES OF PHARMACY PRACTICE Pharmacists practice in a variety of areas including retail, hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, drug industry, and regulatory agencies. Pharmacists can specialize in various areas of practice including but not limited to: hematology/oncology, infectious diseases, ambulatory care, nutrition support, drug information, critical care, pediatrics, etc.
AREAS OF PHAMACY PRACTICE Pharmacists are trained professionals who dispense medications prescribed by authorized practitioners. They have special knowledge about the use, composition, therapeutic and adverse effects of medications, as well as the laws that regulate the making and selling of drugs.
Pharmacists also review patient’s medications for interactions with other drugs, food and diseases to help ensure the optimal medication regimen with minimal complications or side-effects. ? ? ? HOSPITAL PHARMACY COMMUNITY PHARMACY INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
INTEGRATIVE PHARMACY CONSULTANT PHARMACY EDUCATION/ACADEMIA RESEARCH GOVERNMENT SERVICE VETERINARY PRACTICE MILITARY PHARMACY Hospital Pharmacy This differs from community pharmacy in setting, types of patients and complexity of medication regimens to manage.
The tasks may also include making sterile solutions or special intravenous mixtures, advising the medical and nursing staffs about new drugs, monitoring patients’ drug therapies, and maintaining a drug information library. The special responsibility has led to the increased training and specialization of Clinical Pharmacists.
Specialist areas include haematology/oncology, HIV/AIDS, infectious disease, critical care, emergency medicine, toxicology, nuclear pharmacy, pain management, psychiatry, anticoagulation clinics, herbal medicine, neurology/epilepsy management, paediatrics, neonatal pharmacists and more Community Pharmacy Most pharmacists work in community/retail pharmacies. For many people the pharmacist is the primary source of health information – the health care professional who is readily accessible and easily approachable.
The pharmacy is often the first place patients go for questions about medicine and their health. Industrial Pharmacy Careers in the Pharmaceutical industry, working for pharmaceutical manufacturers, involve the research and development of new products, and sales and marketing of the company. Sales: Professional sales representative, medical sales representative provide other health professionals with information on products to promote sales. Marketing Research and Development Production and Quality Control Management 6.
Little contact with patients, but extensive contact with pharmacists and other health professionals, particularly physicians and other prescribers. Contact more related to a specific medication or disease state Long-Term Care and Consulting Pharmacy Consultant Pharmacist: educator, provider of pharmacy systems, a drug information resource, a clinical practitioner, a patient care advocate, a member of the health care team. Some community pharmacies employ consultant pharmacists and/or provide consulting services. Some of the functions include:
Table 1-1 Selected Services Provided by Consultant Pharmacists 1,3 Primary Patient Care Services Information/Education Services Drug regimen review Quality assurance programs Nutrition assessment/support services Drug information Inservice education programs Durable medical equipment (DME) Enteral feeding products Surgical appliance fitting Outpatient compliance packaging Drug research programs Home diagnostic services Pharmacokinetic dosing services Laboratory testing services Pain management counseling Medication delivery systems Patient counseling Medical/surgical supplies.
Intravenous therapy services Quality assurance programs Therapeutic drug monitoring Computer generated forms and reports Pharmacists in Academia Training future members of the profession and conducting research to support and improve practice. Typically little contact with patients, although this depends on their research emphasis 7 and the position they hold. Researchers conduct laboratory studies and evaluate large amounts of data.
Academicians work with other healthcare professionals and students, instructing them on the practice and science of pharmacy.
Pharmacists in academic positions are employed not only in pharmacy schools but also in medical schools and schools that train other healthcare professionals Pharmacists in Government Pharmacists in government also play regulatory and administrative roles. They may inspect drug manufacturing laboratories or community pharmacies, participate in enforcing the legal use of medications, and maintain the purity of cosmetics, drugs, and foods. ? Pharmacy Council inspectors ? Pharmacists and Public Health Ministry of Health.
Army- Military ? Primary Health Care ? Health Centres Pharmacists in Research ? Drug Development: ? Jamaican situation with diversity of herbal remedies ? Pharmacy operations Research for Caribbean/developing countries ? Epidemiology: Distribution and determinants of health related events in populations and application of this knowledge. ? Pharmacoepidemiology: risk assessment/safety of new drug ? Communicable diseases (education) Substance Abuse Nutrition Environment Chronic Diseases (screening) Nuclear Pharmacy.
A nuclear pharmacist, as a member of the nuclear medicine team, specializes in procurement, compounding, quality assurance, dispensing, distribution, and development of 8 radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the nuclear pharmacist monitors patient outcomes and provides information and consultation regarding health and safety issues.
The main function of the nuclear Pharmacist includes: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Order, receipt, storage and inventory control of radioactive drugs (radiopharmaceuticals), other drugs used in nuclear medicine, and related supplies Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals by combining radioisotopes with reagent kits, and compounding radiopharmaceuticals that are not commercially available.
Functional checks of instruments, equipment and devices and determination of radiopharmaceutical quality and purity Filling of prescription orders Packaging, labeling and transport of radiopharmaceuticals Proper handling of hazardous chemicals and biological specimens Communicating radiopharmaceutical-related information to others Assuring that patients receive proper preparation before radiopharmaceutical administration and trouble-shooting unanticipated outcomes.
Laboratory testing of new radiopharmaceuticals, new compounding procedures, quality control methods and participation in clinical trials Veterinary Pharmacy Requires a specially-trained pharmacist who dispenses veterinary medicines and supplies overthe-counter products and advice to owners of companion animals and livestock. Veterinary pharmacists also advise the regulatory bodies and are involved in the formulation of veterinary drugs.
There is need for specialization in each area of Pharmacy for the optimum outcome of patient care as future of pharmacy is affected by:
Increasing population Increased education and knowledge Increased number of pharmaceuticals/treatment choices Availability of health insurance coverage Problems associated with drug usage: o Compliance o Unnecessary drug therapy 9 o Wrong drug Incorrect dosing o Adverse drug reactions REFERENCES: Edward Kremers, Glenn Sonnedecker ‘The development in France ‘in Kremers and Urdang’s History of pharmacy ch:5; pp:78-79 (Accessed 1October 2010) 10.