Institutionalization and deinstitutionalization

I. Introduction and History a. Three categories of beliefs about the etiology of psychopathology i. Supernatural-demonology, gods, magic ii. Biological basis (somatogenesis) iii. Psychological basis (psychogenesis) b. Philippe Pinel iv. Removed chains from patients and treated them kindly as an experiment; found it was successful c. Dorothea Dix v. Aroused worldwide awareness of inhumane treatment for the mentally ill and established 32 mental hospitals around the world d. Moral Treatment Management vi. Wide-ranging method of treatment that focused on the physical well being of hospitalized mental patients e.

Lobotomy vii. Proved to be ineffective f. Deinstitutionalization movement and effects on society viii. Forces that initiated movement: miracle drugs, labeling, recognition of institutional hazards like sociocultural isolation, powerlessness, and passivity and withdrawl, transferred responsibility from states to federal and private institutions ix. Positives: fewer patients spend time in inpatient hospitals x. Negatives: homeless patients; jailed; nursing homes; focused on medication; more stigma than physical illness II.

Paradigms of Psychopathology g. Paradigms xi. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Paradigm 1. Main premise: symptoms of psychopathology result from repressed unconscious conflicts within the individual 2. Corollary: treatment goal is to make unconscious conflicts conscious, thereby removing the need for symptoms 3. Sigmund Freud xii. Behavioral Paradigm 4. Both maladaptive and adaptive behavior is learned 5. Treatment consists of unlearning maladaptive behavior and/or learning new adaptive behaviors 6. B. F. Skinner xiii. Humanistic Paradigm 7.

All humans will strive for self-actualization given the right environment; symptoms are result of rigidity and losing self-direected path 8. Goal of treatment is to provide nurturing environment that will allow the individual to regain self directedness and reach his/her full potential 9. Carl Rogers xiv. Cognitive Paradigm 10. Maladaptive behavior is caused by cognitive interpretation of events and situations, not by the events/situations themselves 11. Treatment focuses on changing maladaptive interpretations and negative self-talk that result from maladaptive beliefs 12.

Aaron Beck xv. Biological Paradigm 13. Psychopathology is caused by biological aberration or predisposition to biological aberration 14. Treatment for psychopathology will be biologically based (pharmaceutical, surgical, ECT) 15. Hippocrates h. Classical conditioning xvi. UCS, UCR, CS, CR xvii. Ivan Pavlov i. Operant conditioning xviii. Reinforcement, punishment xix. Skinner j. Modeling xx. Bandura k. Token Economy l. Schemas- mental structure we use to organize and simplify our knowledge of the world around us m. Cognitive biases (cognitive distortions) xxi.

Dichotomous thinking- thinking in extremes xxii. Overgeneralization- sweeping conclusion on one event xxiii. Magnification/minimization- exaggerations in evaluating performance or outcome xxiv. “should” thinking- everyone should conform to a rigid set of rules n. Cognitive restructuring xxv. Identifying problematic beliefs xxvi. Challenging beliefs xxvii. Replacing with more positive/realistic beliefs o. Graduated exposure p. Medical model xxviii. Disorder is discrete xxix. Disorder is within the individual xxx. Underlying cause xxxi. Treatment removes cause q.

Diathesis/stress xxxii. Diathesis-predispostions xxxiii. Stress-response to exceeding demands xxxiv. Basics of neurotransmission III. Diagnosis and Classification of Psychopathology r. Argument for and against classification system xxxv. For 16. communication among clinicians and researchers 17. Promotes research of causes 18. Development of treatments 19. Funding for research 20. Funding for treatment 21. Allows for prediction of future behavior xxxvi. Against 22. Lose information about he individual 23. Stigma 24. Pathologizing of everyday problems in living 25.

Can be used as a method of social control 26. Treatments can be counter productive s. The Multiaxial Classification System xxxvii. First three axes assess an individual’s present status or condition 27. Diagnostic Categories 28. Personality disorders and mental retardation 29. General medical conditions xxxviii. The last two axes are used to assess broader aspects of an individual’s situation 4. Psychosocial and environmental problems 5. Current level of functioning a. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scalle t. Categorical vs dimensional Approach xxxix.

Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment. The study of mental illness and its corresponding …

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Historical Perspectives of Abnormal PsychologyAbnormal psychology has never been simple to define due to the many challenges. From the origins of abnormal psychology, scientific discipline, and theoretical models related to abnormal psychology there are many areas that need to be …

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