Infectious disease

Pathology: Poliomyelitis I: Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines. Therefore, the strategy to eradicate polio is based on preventing infection by immunizing every child to stop transmission and ultimately make the world polio free. However, my patient was born before the vaccine was created. She caught the disease as a child and had many problems related to the disease. It crossed her spine therefore she is crippled on her left arm and her right leg.

She’s had 47 surgeries related to poliomyelitis. II: Although approximately 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. In about 1% of cases, the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs.

Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis. III: Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV). This group of RNA viruses colonize the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the oropharynx and the intestine. The incubation time (to the first signs and symptoms) ranges from three to 35 days, with a more common span of six to 20 days.

PV infects and causes disease in humans alone. Its structure is very simple, composed of a single (+) sense RNA genome enclosed in a protein shell called a capsid. In addition to protecting the virus’s genetic material, the capsid proteins enable poliovirus to infect certain types of cells. Three serotypes of poliovirus have been identified—poliovirus type 1 (PV1), type 2 (PV2), and type 3 (PV3)—each with a slightly different capsid protein. All three are extremely virulent and produce the same disease symptoms.

PV1 is the most commonly encountered form, and the one most closely associated with paralysis. IV: Paralytic poliomyelitis may be clinically suspected in individuals experiencing acute onset of flaccid paralysis in one or more limbs with decreased or absent tendon reflexes in the affected limbs that cannot be attributed to another apparent cause, and without sensory or cognitive loss. V: A laboratory diagnosis is usually made based on recovery of poliovirus from a stool sample or a swab of the pharynx.

Antibodies to poliovirus can be diagnostic, and are generally detected in the blood of infected patients early in the course of infection. Analysis of the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is collected by a lumbar puncture (“spinal tap”), reveals an increased number of white blood cells (primarily lymphocytes) and a mildly elevated protein level. Detection of virus in the CSF is diagnostic of paralytic polio, but rarely occurs.

If poliovirus is isolated from a patient experiencing acute flaccid paralysis, it is further tested through oligonucleotide mapping (genetic fingerprinting), or more recently by PCR amplification, to determine whether it is “wild type” (that is, the virus encountered in nature) or “vaccine type” (derived from a strain of poliovirus used to produce polio vaccine). It is important to determine the source of the virus because for each reported case of paralytic polio caused by wild poliovirus, an estimated 200 to 3,000 other contagious asymptomatic carriers exist.

VI: There is no cure for polio. The focus of modern treatment has been on providing relief of symptoms, speeding recovery and preventing complications. Supportive measures include antibiotics to prevent infections in weakened muscles, analgesics for pain, moderate exercise and a nutritious diet. Treatment of polio often requires long-term rehabilitation, including occupational therapy, physical therapy, braces, corrective shoes and, in some cases, orthopedic surgery. Portable ventilators may be required to support breathing.

Historically, a noninvasive, negative-pressure ventilator, more commonly called an iron lung, was used to artificially maintain respiration during an acute polio infection until a person could breathe independently (generally about one to two weeks). Today, many polio survivors with permanent respiratory paralysis use modern jacket-type negative-pressure ventilators worn over the chest and abdomen. Other historical treatments for polio include hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, massage and passive motion exercises, and surgical treatments, such as tendon lengthening and nerve grafting.

Polio is caused by a virus which results in an acute infection. However, contrary to what is commonly believed, the virus did not typically result in paralysis. Rather, the majority of infected individuals experienced only mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, …

Polio is caused by a virus which results in an acute infection. However, contrary to what is commonly believed, the virus did not typically result in paralysis. Rather, the majority of infected individuals experienced only mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, …

Polio is also known as poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis. Polio is a viral disease that affects nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. It’s a disease caused by inflammation of nerve cells in the brain stem or spinal …

Poliomyelitis is an acute virus disease caused by the poliovirus, characterized by fever, motor paralysis, and atrophy of skeletal muscles. This often results in permanent disability and deformity, and inflammation of nerve cells in the ventral horns of the spinal …

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