Decomposer – Breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds Prokaryote – No nucleus – microscopic, unicellular organisms, lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles Pathogen – Microorganisms that do harm Eukaryote – unicellular (microscopic) and multicellular, nucleus and membrane-bound organelles alcohol – archaeobacteria – Prokaryotic single-celled organisms of primitive origin that have unusual anatomy, physiology, and genetics, and live in harsh habitats; when capitalized (Archaea), the term refers to one of the three domains of living organisms as proposed by Woese.
ATP – The energy molecule of cells. Adenosine triphosphate. Transfers and stores energy attenuated vaccine – To reduce the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium or virus by passing it through a non-native host or by long-term subculture. caposemere – A subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc. Capsule – In bacteria, the loose, gellike covering or slime made chiefly of simple polysaccharides. This layer is protective and can be associated with virulence. Carrier – A person who harbors infections and inconspicuously spreads them to others.
Also, a chemical agent that can accept an atom, chemical radical, or subatomic particle from one compound and pass it on to another. Cholesterol – Best-known member of a group of lipids called steroids. Cholesterol is commonly found in cell membranes and animal hormones. Chronic disease – Any process or disease that persists over a long duration. Control – control group covalent bond – A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms. disinfect – The destruction of pathogenic nonsporulating microbes or their toxins, usually on inanimate surfaces.
Electrolyte – Any compound that ionizes in solution and conducts current in an electrical field. Electron – A negatively charged subatomic particle that is distributed around the nucleus in an atom. element – A substance comprising only one kind of atom that cannot be degraded into two or more substances without losing its chemical characteristics. endemic – A native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region. Endotoxin – A bacterial intracellular toxin that is not ordinarily released (as is exotoxin). Endotoxin is composed of a phospholipid-polysaccharide complex that is an integral part of gram-negative bacterial cell walls.
Endotoxins can cause severe shock and fever. Enzyme – A protein biocatalyst that facilitates metabolic reactions. Epidemic – A sudden and simultaneous outbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community. Epidemiology – The study of the factors affecting the prevalence and spread of disease within a community. Exotoxin fatty acid Fermeter – A large tank used in industrial microbiology to grow mass quantities of microbes that can Fomite – Virtually any inanimate object an infected individual has contact with that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of disease.
Fructose – One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars. Fructose is commonly fruit sugars. Genome – The complete set of chromosomes and genes in an organism. Glucose – One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars. Glucose is characterized by its 6-carbon structure. glycerol – A 3-carbon alcohol, with three OH groups that serve as binding sites. Helminth – A term that designates all parasitic worms.
Host range – The limitation imposed by the characteristics of the host cell on the type of virus that can successfully invade it.hydrogen bond – A weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of forces between molecules or atoms—in this case, hydrogen and either oxygen or nitrogen. In this type of bond, electrons are not shared, lost, or gained.
Hypothesis – A tentative explanation of what has been observed or measured. immunology – The study of the system of body defenses that protect against infection. Infection – The entry, establishment, and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host. inflammation – A natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury that protects the host from further damage.
It stimulates immune reactivity and blocks the spread of an infectious agent. Influenza – Ion – An unattached, charged particle. Ionic Bond – A chemical bond in which electrons are transferred and not shared between atoms. Isotope – A version of an element that is virtually identical in all chemical properties to another version except that their atoms have slightly different atomic masses. Killed vaccine – A whole cell or intact virus preparation in which the microbes are dead or preserved and cannot multiply but are still capable of conferring immunity. Lactose – One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars.
Lactose is commonly found in milk. Latent – after initial symptoms of disease, the microbe can periodically become active and produce a recurrent disease or relapse lipid – A term used to describe a variety of substances that are not soluble in polar solvents such as water but will dissolve in nonpolar solvents such as benzene and chloroform. Lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes. Lipopolysaccharides – A molecular complex of lipid and carbohydrate found in the bacterial cell wall.
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria is an endotoxin with generalized pathologic effects such as fever malaria -maltose – One of the carbohydrates referred to as sugars. A fermentable sugar formed from starch. mold molecule – A distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms.
Neutron – An electrically neutral particle in the nuclei of all atoms except hydrogen. normal microbiota oncogenic – A naturally occurring type of gene that when activated can transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. pandemic – A disease afflicting an increased proportion of the population over a wide geographic area (often worldwide). Pathology – The structural and physiological effects of disease on the body.
Peptide bond – The covalent union between two amino acids that forms between the amine group of one and the carboxyl group of the other. The basic bond of proteins. phosphate – An acidic salt containing phosphorus and oxygen that is an essential inorganic component of DNA, RNA, and ATP. phospholipid – A class of lipids that compose a major structural component of cell membranes. prion – A concocted word to denote “proteinaceous infectious agent”; a cytopathic protein associated with the slow-virus spongiform encephalopathies of humans and animals.
Prophage – A lysogenized bacteriophage; a phage that is latently incorporated into the host chromosome instead of undergoing viral replication and lysis. Proton – An elementary particle that carries a positive charge. It is identical to the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. protozoan – A group of single-celled, eukaryotic organisms.
Reservoir – In disease communication, the natural host or habitat of a pathogen. ribosome – A bilobed macromolecular complex of ribonucleoprotein that coordinates the codons of mRNA with tRNA anticodons and, in so doing, constitutes the peptide assembly site.sanitize – To clean inanimate objects using soap and degerming agents so that they are safe and free of high levels of microorganisms. scientific law – Septicemia – Systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood. Sign – Any abnormality uncovered upon physical diagnosis that indicates the presence of disease.
A sign is an objective assessment of disease, as opposed to a symptom, which is the subjective assessment perceived by the patient. source – The person or item from which an infection is immediately acquired. See reservoir.sporadic disease – Description of a disease that exhibits new cases at irregular intervals in unpredictable geographic locales.
Starch – Sterile – Completely free of all life forms, including spores and viruses. Sucrose – One of the carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars. Common table or cane sugar. symptom – The subjective evidence of infection and disease as perceived by the patient. Syndrome – The collection of signs and symptoms that, taken together, paint a portrait of the disease. theory – A collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event.
Tryglyceride – A type of lipid composed of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acids. tuberculosis – Vector – An animal that transmits infectious agents from one host to another, usually a biting or piercing arthropod such as the tick, mosquito, or fly. Infectious agents can be conveyed mechanically by simple contact or biologically whereby the parasite develops in the vector. A genetic element such as a plasmid or a bacteriophage used to introduce genetic material into a cloning host during recombinant DNA experiments.
Viral capsid – protein coat that enclose and protect their nucleic acid viral spikes – exposed protiens on outside of envelope to attach to the host. Viroid – An infectious agent that, unlike a virion, lacks a capsid and consists of a closed circular RNA molecule. Although known viroids are all plant pathogens, it is conceivable that animal versions exist. virus – Microscopic, acellular agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. wax – People to know Josepth Lister – introduced aspetic techniques Ignaz Semmelwies – correlated infections with physicians going from autopsy to maternity ward.
Robert Koch – kochs posulates, pure culture technique Louis Pasteur – disproved spontaneous generation, developed pastureization, demonstarted germ theory of disease, showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage of food. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek – first to observe microbes, invetned a single len microscope. Concepts to know Definition of a microorganism – A living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification; an organism of microscopic size. Secondary infection – An infection that compounds a pre exisiting one The steps in the scientific method – observation, test, theory or hypothesis, trial and error, theory.
Law/principle mixed infection – Occurs when several different pathogens interact simultaneously to produce an infection. Also called a synergistic infection. Diseases that mosquitoes transmit – malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, rift valley fever acute infection – an infection that comes on rapidly with severe but short lived effects. Properties of water local infection – Occurs when a microbe enters a specific tissue, infects it, and remains confined there. Virulence factors – A product of microbes such as an enzyme or toxin that increases the invasiveness or Toxemia – An abnormality associated with certain infectious diseases.
Toxemia is caused by toxins or other noxious substances released by microorganisms circulating in the blood. Stages of infection (pp3, slide 42) -incubation period -prodromal stage -period of invasion -convalescent period Septicemia – Systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood. Disease reservoirs – In disease communication, the natural host or habitat of a pathogen. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease- A spongiform encephalopathy caused by infection with a prion. The disease is marked by dementia, impaired senses, and uncontrollable muscle contractions.
Koch’s Postulates – A procedure to establish the specific cause of disease. In all cases of infection: (1) The agent must be found; (2) inoculations of a pure culture must reproduce the same disease in animals; (3) the agent must again be present in the experimental animal; and (4) a pure culture must again be obtained. Infectious dose – The estimated number of microbial cells or units required to establish an infection. host cell – Organism in which smaller organisms or viruses live, feed, and reproduce. Steps in viral replication (3rd pp, slide 23) -adsorption -penetration -uncoating -synthesis -assembly -release.