Substances which inhibits growth and development of micro-organisms. Asepsis Absence of germs. Autoclave A piece of equipment used to sterilize equipment/materials by ‘steam under pressure’. Bacteria A micro-organism that needs food and water to survive. Bactericidal An agent that destroys/kills bacteria. Bacteriostatic The prevention of bacteria from growing and multiplying, but it doesn’t necessary destroy them. Cleaning Cleaning using detergents helps to remove micro-organisms. Disinfection.
Using disinfectants when cleaning helps to destroy the structure of the organism. Host Mosby’s definition is; “an organism in which another, usually parasitic, organism is nourished and harboured”. Immunity The bodies ability to resist both living and non-living agents that can cause disease. Immuno-compromised Mosby’s definition is; “…, pertaining to an immune response that has been weakend by a disease or an immuo suppressive agent”. Incubation period The time between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease. Infection.
Mosby’s definition is; “invasion of the body by pathogenic micro-organisms that reproduce and multiply, causing disease by local cellular injury, secretion of a toxic, or antigen-antibody reaction in the host”. Localised Infection An infection that is limited to a specific part of the body and has local symptoms. Primary Infection The initial infection. Secondary Infection Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine states; “Illness caused by a new bacteria, viruses, or fungi becoming established in the wake of an initial infection”. Superinfection.
Mosby’s definition is; “an infection occurring during antimicrobial treatment for another infection”. Systemic Infection An infection that is spread throughout the body rather that in an isolated area. Micro-organisms They are usually microscropic and are 6 major groups, 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Protozoa 4. Fungi 5. Algae 6. Parasites Pathogens Disease causing any micro-orgaisim. Sterile Completely free of all micro-organisms and their spores. Non-pathogen Can not cause disease. Prophylaxis Prevention or protection from disease. Resistance.
Source Virulence The ability of an agent of infection to produce disease. QUESTION 2 Infection Invasion of a part of the body by a pathogenic micro-organisms which multiply in number. Opportunistic pathogen A micro-organism which causes disease in a susceptible individual. Virulence The ability of micro-organisms to cause disease. Normal flora Micro-organisms which reside in particular parts of our bodies without causing us harm. Nosocomial infection Infections associated with the delivery of health care in a health care service. QUESTION 3.
The ward you are working on has one large sharps container in the medication room. Staff bring their sharps back to this room from wherever they have used them. Why is this procedure unsatisfactory? Sharps should be disposed of straight away as it can cause potential exposure to infections and injuries, not only to the nurse but to the patient, other workers and visitors. What steps can be taken to make this safe? Instead of having 1 large sharps container have several smaller sharps containers that nursing staff could use. How would you go about having this altered?
I would first speak to my nursing unit manager about instead of having 1 large sharps container about having several smaller sharps containers that the nursing staff could take into the rooms with them. If the nursing unit manager would not listen I would approach the Occupational Health and Safety Officer about policies and procedures not being meet. QUESTION 4 You are working with a new staff member and notice they are wearing a bracelet and artificial nails. What information would you give the new staff member regarding client safety and infection control for both the bracelet and nails?
I would ask if the new staff member had received a Staff Employment Pack which should be given to all new staff members which should refer them to Policies and Producers of the organization. If the new staff member has not received them I would get them a copy and explain the importance in regards to client safety and infection control, and if they have forgotten I would remind them about it. If I have a negative response I would report it to the Nursing Unit Manager about my concerns regarding client safety and infection control. QUESTION 5.
Rachel is a new staff member who has been asked to clean up a blood spill in the corridor after a client fall. Outline the step by step procedure Rachel should follow. The procedure that I would tell Rachel would be what the facilities Policy and Procedure is. This should always involve the following; * Personal Protective equipment * Nature of the spill, and the likely hood of pathogens * Size of the spill * Type of surface * Area involved All blood spills should be dealth with immediately, and instructions should be followed when using detergent and disinfectant. QUESTION 6
Daphne is a cleaner at a clinic. There is already a lot of staff on leave with the flu. She feels pretty unwell but as they are short staffed she doesn’t want to take the day off. So she is at work, sneezing, coughing and feeling unwell. What are the risks to Daphne and those around her? The risks to Daphne is that she could have an accident that could cause injury to both herself and others as she is unwell so she is probably not concentrating, also she may not be as thorough as she needs to be when cleaning equipment or surfaces as she just wants to go home as she is feeling unwell.
Daphne is also spreading her germs/virus to other staff and patients/clients, but also on the equipment. Question 7 James who works in a health care centre has spent the weekend helping his father prune the roses. He has a number of scratches and small cuts on his hands and forearms. Back at work on Monday a client comes in with a cut leg and James puts some gauze over it and applies pressure to stop the bleeding. It was an emergency and James has not put on gloves. What should James have done before starting work?
Before James started work he should have cleaned all his grazes and cover them. When the client arrived if he was conscious James should have got him to hold the gauze and apply pressure while James puts his gloves on. What are the risks to James and his patients? James has open cuts and he doesn’t know what diseases his patients/clients may have, and vise versa. QUESTION 8 Brian is a massage therapist working in a residential aged care facility. The organization provides free ‘flu shots’ for staff. Brian is not sure whether to have one or not and asks your advice.
What advice would you give? I would refer them to the facilities Policies and Procedures as well as refer him to the “Immunisation Guidelines for Health Care Workers in South Australia (2008 revised edition)”. Why are immunization programs important? Immunisation programs are important as they help to decrease the outbreaks of preventable diseases. QUESTION 9 You are visiting a client at home and find an used insulin syringe in the bedside table. What are the hazards and risks for you and the client? The risks would be the potential exposure to blood-borne infections.
What can you do to decrease the risks? Provide a sharps container and educate the client on the importance and how to safely dispose the used syringes. References Funnel, R, Koutoukidis, G & Lawrence, K 2009 Tabner’s Nursing Care 5th edn, Elseveir, Australia. Harris, P, Nagy, S, Vardaxis, N 2010 Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions, Elsevier, Australia. South Australia Infection Control Guidelines http://www. health. sa. gov. au Tafe SA 2011Comply with Infection Control Policies and Procedures in Health Work, Tafe SA Learning Materials, Australia.