Infection Control

Reservoir- A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply. *A variety of microorganisms live on the skin and within the body cavities, fluids, and discharges* BACTERIA: 1. Water-Most require water or moisture 2. Temperature- microorganisms can only live in certain temp ranges (IDEAL 20-43 degree C) -Bacteriostasis- cold temp prevent growth & reproduction of bacteria -Bactericidal- a temp or chemical that destroys bacteria 3. pH- Prefer pH from 5-7 4.

Light- Most microorganisms thrive best in dark environments such as under dressings and within body cavities Portal of exits- Blood, skin, and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, GI tract, and transplacental (mother to fetus). Susceptibility- degree of resistance to a pathogen Pathogenicity- extent of infection depends on the dose of the organism, and the susceptibility of the host. Inflammatory response-protective reaction that serves to neutralize pathogens and repair body cells *NON SPECIFIC Superinfection- when a broad-spectrum antibiotic eliminates a wide range of normal flora organisms, not just the infection.

Inflammation-body’s cellular response to injury, infection, or irritation. Inflammatory Exudates- fluid & cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessels -Serous- clear, like plasma -Sanguineous- contains RBCs -Purulent-WBC’s & bacteria COURSE OF INFECTION Incubation period- interval b/t entrance & appearance of 1st symptoms Prodromal stage- onset of non-specific S/S- onset of more specific symptoms Illness stage- interval when client manifests S/S specific to type of infection Convalescence- interval when acute symptoms or infection disappear Granulation tissue- scar tissue

HAIS (nosocomial infections)-health care associated infections *sites: urinary tract, surgical or traumatic wounds, Respiratory tract, bloodstream *HAIS are either exogenous ( present outside the body) or endogenous (part of normal flora or virulent organisms residing that could cause infection). Latrogenic infection- type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. Client susceptibility- Many factors influence susceptibility; age, nutritional status, stress, disease process, medical therapy.

*Localized infections are most common areas of skin or mucous membrane breakdown, such as surgical or traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, oral lesions, and abscesses. * To identify causative organisms, nurse collects specimens of body fluid such as sputum or drainage from infected body sites for cultures. * Rinse contaminated objects with COLD WATER to remove organic material. Hot water causes the protein in organic material to coagulate & stick to objects. Suppurative- pus forming infection

Asepsis- absence of pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms Medical asespsis- clean technique, lowers # of organisms present & prevents the transfer of organisms. Disenfection-process that eliminates many or all microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores Sterilization-complete elimination or destruction of ALL microorganisms, including spores. ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS: Contact transmission: Direct- care & handling or contaminated body fluids (blood or body fluid from infected to workers direct skin.)

Indirect-transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object (contaminated instruments of hands). Droplet precautions: diseases that are transmitted by large droplets & expelled in the air 3-6 feet. Airborne Precautions: diseases transmitted by smaller droplets and remain in the air for a long period of time * requires a negative air flow room Protective environment: requires a positive airflow room (when airflow is set at >12 air exchanges per hour, and all air is filtered through a HEPA filter), very limited client population.

Epidemiology- cause and effect of health care associated infections. Sterile Field- An area free of microorganisms & prepared to receive sterile items. *Sterile touches sterile *Clean touches clean *Only sterile objects can be placed on sterile field *A sterile object out of vision is contaminated *A sterile object with prolonged exposure to air becomes contaminated *The edges ( 1-inch) around sterile field are contaminated Surgical scrub- scrub from fingers to elbows for 5 MINUTES Table 34-1 Common Pathogens and some Infections or Diseases they produce Bacteria Ecoli: found in the intestines.

Staph aureus: skin hair anterior nares mouth Strep a: nose mouth skin perianal oropharnyx Strep b: adult genitalia Tb: droplets from lungs and larynx Gonorrhea: mouth rectum and urinary tract Rickets: ticks Staph epiderm: skin Virus Hep a: feces Hep b and c: blood body fluids sexual contact Herpes type 1: lesions mouth saliva genitalia HIV: blood semen vag secretions via sexual contact Fungi Aspergillus: soil dust mouth skin colon genital tract Candida: mouth skin colon genital tract Protozoa Plasmodium: blood Table 34-2 Routes and Means Examples of Organisms Contact Direct.

Person-to-person (fecal, oral) Physical contact between source and susceptible host (e. g. , touching client feces and then touching your inner mouth or consuming contaminated food) Example of direct: Hepatitis A virus, Shigella, Staphylococcus Indirect Personal contact of susceptible host with contaminated inanimate object (e. g. , needles or sharp objects, dressings, environment) Example of indirect: Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Staphylococcus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Pseudomonas, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Droplet Large particles that travel up to 3 feet and come in contact with susceptible host (e. g. , coughing, sneezing, or talking) Example of droplet: Influenza virus, rubella virus, bacterial meningitis Airborne Droplet nuclei, or residue or evaporated droplets suspended in air (e. g. , coughing, sneezing) or carried on dust particles Examples of airborne: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis), varicella zoster virus (chickenpox), Aspergillus, measles virus Vehicles Contaminated items Water Drugs, solutions Blood.

Food (improperly handled, stored, or cooked; fresh or thawed meats) Example of vehicles: Vibrio cholerae, MRSA, Pseudomonas, Legionella, Pseudomonas, Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, syphilis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum Vector External mechanical transfer (flies) Internal transmission such as parasitic conditions between vector and host, such as: Mosquito Louse Flea Tick Examples of Vectors: V. cholera Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), West Nile virus Rickettsia typhi Yersinia pestis (plague) Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease).

TABLE 34-3 Normal Defense Mechanisms Against Infection Skin Defense mechanisms: Intact multilayered surface (body’s first line of defense against infection), Shedding of outer layer of skin cells, Sebum Action: Provides barrier to microorganisms and antibacterial activities, Removes organisms that adhere to skin’s outer layers, Contains fatty acid that kills some bacteria Factors that may alter defense mechanisms: Cuts, abrasions, puncture wounds, areas of maceration, Failure to bathe regularly, improper hand-washing technique, Excessive bathing Mouth Defense mechanisms: Intact multilayered mucosa, Saliva.

Action: Provides mechanical barrier to microorganisms, Washes away particles containing microorganisms, Contains microbial inhibitors (e. g. , lysozyme) Factors that may alter defense mechanisms: Lacerations, trauma, extracted teeth, Poor oral hygiene, dehydration Eye Defense mechansims: Tearing and blinking Actions: Provides mechanisms to reduce entry (blinking) or to assist in washing away (tearing) particles containing pathogens, thus reducing dose of organisms Factors that may alter defense mechanisms: Injury, exposure—splash/splatter of blood or other potentially infectious material into the eye.

Respiratory Tract Defense mechanisms: Cilia lining upper airway, coated by mucus, Macrophages Actions: Trap inhaled microbes and sweep them outward in mucus to be expectorated or swallowed, Engulf and destroy microorganisms that reach lung’s alveoli Factors that may alters defense mechanisms: Smoking, high concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide, decreased humidity, cold air Smoking Urinary Tract.

Defense mechanisms: Flushing action of urine flow, Intact multilayered epithelium Actions: Washes away microorganisms on lining of bladder and urethra, Provides barrier to microorganisms Factors that may alter defense mechanisms: Obstruction to normal flow by urinary catheter placement, obstruction from growth or tumor, delayed micturition, Introduction of urinary catheter, continual movement of catheter in urethra Gastrointestinal Tract.

Defense mechanisms: Acidity of gastric secretions, Rapid peristalsis in small intestine Actions: Prevents retention of bacterial contents Factors that alter defense mechanisms: Delayed motility resulting from impaction of fecal contents in large bowel or mechanical obstruction by masses Vagina Defense mechanisms: At puberty, normal flora causing vaginal secretions to achieve low pH Actions: Inhibit growth of many microorganisms Factors that may alter defense mechanisms: Antibiotics and oral contraceptives disrupting normal flora.

Fungi are: Fungi are living organisms that are distantly related to plants, and more closely related to animals, but rather different from either of those groups. Fungi have similar physical characteristics to plants and are sometimes mistakenly put in the …

1) Infections are the result of the body’s inability to fight off microorganisms that can cause damage or disease if they are left untreated. They can be viral or bacterial in nature and might be caused by a fungus or …

Antiseptics- is a substance, which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms Asepsis- is the absence of infectious agents that may produce disease Autoclave- An appliance used to sterilize medical instruments or other objects with steam under pressure. Bacteria- are …

1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria, fungi and parasites are all considered as ‘living’ things,. Bacteria are single celled microorganisms that can only been seen through a microscope, they collect their nutrition from their …

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