Immune system

Learner to provide narrative under each statement of how they meet the criteria. You must provide answers to each question that allow your assessor to properly assess what work duties you are doing or what role you have within your work. It expected that you will need approximately 300 words per question. The more detail you provide the less likely your account will be sent back for more clarification. You must answer each question in your own words and written in the first person meaning “I do this”. A tip is always to keep in mind the “who, why, how, where and when” in each answer.

Learning Outcome 1- Understand the causes of infection 1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria are one celled living organisms visible only with a microscope, which live in or on other organism, such as plants and animals. Not all bacteria are harmful, we have bacteria that reside in our intestines and helps in digesting food. Bacteria do not need a host cell to reproduce, it usually reproduce via binary fission dividing itself into two identical cells. Bacteria are classified into 5 groups according to their basic shapes; spherical, rod, spiral, comma or corkscrew.

They can exist as single cells, in pairs, chains or clusters. Not all bacteria are harmful, under normal circumstances our body has a wide variety of bacteria referred to as human normal flora. These bacteria actually contribute to body functions, like digesting nutrients and protecting us by preventing other harmful bacteria from using our bodies as host. Viruses are the smallest agents of infectious disease. Viruses are basically just capsules that contain genetic material.

To www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM reproduce viruses, invade cells in our body. Antibiotics have no effects on viruses. Viruses cannot replicate without infecting a living cell, they do not replicate outside a host. All viruses have genes made from either deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms or Ribonucleic Acid that carry genetic information. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses.

Viruses produce disease usually by killing off enough cells to cause damage, or by disrupting the body’s homeostasis, the system in which the body maintains all of its functions. Unlike the bacteria, most diseases caused by viruses are systemic; they affect the whole body. Fungi are living organism that contains nucleus with chromosomes and complex internal structures, like plants and animals.

Fungi absorb their own food. They are found in any habitat but most live on the land, mainly in soil. Fungi are diverse in terms of their shape, size and means of infecting humans. Parasites are different from bacteria or viruses because their cells share many features with human cells including a defined nucleus.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in host and gets food from its host. Some parasites can multiply freely in the environment. 1. 2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria are pathogenic which means that can cause diseases. Some bacteria that cause infections include streptococcus, responsible for sore throat, scarlet fever, blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis; staphylococcus responsible for skin infections, pneumonia and food poisoning; and E. coli responsible that cause diarrhoea.

The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhoea, and can sometimes cause kidney failure and even death. Several human diseases are caused by viruses. Viruses are responsible for simple diseases such a common cold, chickenpox and shingles, but they also cause diseases like AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), Ebola a deathly disease transmitted to people from wild animals and also some forms of cancer such as skin, throat and cervical, caused by as human pappiloma viruses. A very small number of fungi cause diseases in animals.

In humans fungi can cause skin diseases such as ‘tines vesicular’, superficial mycoses limited to the surface of the skin and hair, athletes’ foot, a coetaneous mycoses deeper in the skin in the epidermis and also subcutaneous mycosis located in the dermis of the skin or muscles Most parasites are harmless but some others grow, reproduce and give off toxins that will make the host sick. Some devastating diseases in tropical areas are the result of infections by parasites, such malaria that is the most debilitating www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM parasitic disease;

Ascariasis the most common human worm infection, and toxoplasmosis transmitted by eating infected meat, particularly swine products. 1. 3 Describe what is meant by “ infection ” and “colonisation ” Infection means the invasion of pathogenic organisms such as viruses, bacteria and/or parasites that are not normal within the human body. A human with an infection has another organism inside them, is a host, the microorganism will get substances from the person, and will colonize and reproduces inside.

If that organism cause harm to the host means that that person is with an infection and their health will be affected and signs and symptoms will become visible. Colonisation is the development of bacterial infection on an individual such as skin, mouth, etc. without causing disease. We become a carrier of the infection but we may not have signs or symptoms of illness. Colonized pathogens may be transmitted from person to person.

1. 4 Explain what is meant by “ systemic infection ” and “ localised infection ” Systemic infection is when an infection caused by microorganisms has spread actively or passively in the host’s anatomy and is dispersed throughout several organs in different systems, such as digestive, respiratory and especially in the circulatory system o the host. Localised infection is restricted to a specific area of the body. Usually presents symptoms as redness, pain and swelling.

A localised infection does not make a person feel unwell, but without appropriate treatment can cause serious problems and lead to a systemic infection. Some localised infections can be problematic if they are inside the human body, as for example lungs, appendix or in the heart.

1. 5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM Poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection are a poor personal hygiene, such as not washing hands before and after every task, such as personal care, use of toilet, preparing and serving food, etc.

It has been confirmed that effective hand washing is the most valuable way of preventing cross-infection; not using personal protective equipment to protect both us and the resident from the risk of contamination;

Protective equipment such as gloves and aprons must be put immediately before the contact with the resident and removed as soon as the activity is completed; not having a safe use and disposal of sharps, Incorrect handing or disposal of sharps can lead to cross-infection of blood borne viruses such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV; not do appropriate disposal of waste, waste must be divided into sub-categories and should be disposal in the correct bag and bin, inappropriate cleaning and decontamination, such as not cleaning blood or body fluids spillages to protect patients, carers and staff from potential contamination by harmful pathogens, sharing towels or other personal items, such as clothes, tooth brushes, etc. Learning Outcome 2- Understand the transmission of infection.

2. 1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms The best conditions for the growth of micro-organisms are warmth. Temperature has a big influence on the growing of microorganisms. When exposed to adverse temperatures microorganisms are destroyed or nor able to multiply; moisture, which is required in and out of cells for the transfer of nutrients and waste products; nutrients, growth is ideal when sufficient quantity of food is provided to the microorganisms and time to reproduce, Some microorganisms need oxygen to live and multiply although they can live without air and in temperatures from 0 to 40 degrees.

2. 2 Explain the ways an infective agent might ente r the body An infective agent may enter the human body through the digestive tract (mouth, stomach, intestines), food and contaminated water can be swallowed and infect stomach and intestines; through the respiratory tract (nose, lungs), coughs, cold and flu are contracted through this way; through the skin, anything that penetrate our skin may provide a route for infection to enter; and also the urinary system (urethra, bladder) and the reproductive system, sexually transmitted diseases usually infect the genitals. www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM.

2. 3 Identify common sources of infection The common sources of infection include people, a sick person may spread infection when touches, exchanges body fluids with someone else or when coughing and sneezing; environment, contaminated water, air (one of the most significant source of infection because infectious agents travel with it and affect other human bodies when inhaled or ingested) and soil that gets contaminated mainly with pathogenic agents from faeces of humans or animals; animals, as for example a scratch from an animal or a bite from mosquitoes; and foods like meat, milk or eggs can also get easily contaminated right from the start or might be infected while is processed.

2. 4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person Infective agents can be transmitted through direct contact that can be from person to person (touch, kisses, exchange of body fluids from sexual contact or a blood transfusion, coughs, mother to unborn baby, etc) and animal to person (being bitten or scratched by an infected animal); or indirect contact that can be from equipment to person, as for example germs that remain on a non-living object, such as a door handle, if you touch a handle that someone with a cold or flu touched before and after you touch or nose, eyes or mouth you can pick up the germs the person left behind;

Insect bites as for example mosquitoes that can transmit the malaria parasite when moving from host to host and contaminated food and water, as for example an undercooked burger or water contaminated with human or animal faeces. 2.

5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur. An infection is more likely to occur when a person has a low immunity due to other illnesses or conditions, such as cancer, diabetes; older people are also prone to more infections because they immune systems don’t respond as well as when they were young or either because most of the older people frequent have other illness conditions;

Babies and infants due having an immature immune system, especially in the first three months; and pregnant women due the modulation of their immune system during the stages of pregnancy. www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM Learner Signature: Hetvi Minesh Parekh Date: 20th Jan 2015 The information within this Learner statement is a true reflection of the learner’s role, responsibilities and competence. Diploma Assessor Signature: Date: www. vocationaltraining. org. uk L3RA13 SVT Guidebook Health and Social Care Dip 3 Issue 3 August 2014 SM.

1. Identify the difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria Bacteria is a single celled organism, bacteria have evolved to thrive in almost any environment and can be found in almost any substance/surface and also in the human body, …

1. 1. Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites All 4 are different types of pathogens Bacteria is a single celled organism that multiply by themselves. They lives within and on most living and nonliving things. The majority …

1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria- is a microscopic organisms. They are living cells and they can multiply rapidly. Once bacteria are in the body they release poisons/toxins that make us feel ill. Not …

1. 1 Bacteria are one celled micro-organisms that get their nutrients fro their environment to live eg: The human body. Bacteria causes infections and can reproduce either inside or outside the body. Viruses are pieces of nucleic acid (DNA or …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out