Under typical circumstances, adults may replenish an average of up to six or eight cups of fluid each day or around 2L. Water losses in urine account for about three-fourths of daily losses. Remaining losses come from sweat, as tiny water droplets in the air we exhale, and through faeces. Infrequent urination or dark yellow urine may indicate you could use more fluid intake each day. 3. In 200-300 words compare 3 different methods of purifying water, including two commercially available water purifiers. Consider how each method differs, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Which one would you select to purify tap water in your house? Why? 1. Boiling Water Boiling water (100 deg C) is a very effective and reliable method of disinfection. Bacteria and Viruses will die within seconds of reaching boiling point whilst Protozoa take 2 mins at 60 deg C to die. A reliable method, but you have to wait until the water cools before drinking it. 2. Chlorine Dioxide Another method is using an electric current through a salty solution to create mixed oxidants of free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone. The oxidants are then added to the water.
Reported times for disinfection include 15mins for viruses and bacteria; 30mins for Giardia and 4 hours for Cryptosporidia. There are also liquid and tablet formulations containing only chlorine dioxide with/without an ‘activator’ eg. Phosphoric acid (Aquamira) which are mixed together before being added to water. These have also been shown to be effective against Cryptosporidium though times are very variable with turbidity and temperature (30-240mins). 3. Filters There is no such thing as a whole house filter, as you will have utility water and drinking water.
Whole house pre-filters remove dirt and sediment down to 10 microns and 80pc chorine. For drinking water, you need a filter such as carbon block type that filters down to 0. 5 microns to remove the widest range of all contaminants as possible. Such contaminants would be in a community water system where chorine and trihalomethanes have been added as disinfectants. Examples are pump filters and filters that attach to bottles. Filters can also get clogged with the potential to force pathogens through.
They provide a rapid way of removing particles, bacteria, protozoa and some viruses in cloudy/turbid water – but if too turbid can clog the filter rapidly therefore need to be monitored if they need changing. If I was to choose a water purifier for my home, I would invest in an under-counter model with stainless steel housings as they last longer and are designed to operate under constant house pressure without any leaking or bursting problems. A Comparison Table Iodine &ChlorineChlorine DioxideMSR MIOXUVR SteripenFilters Pump/bottleBoiling Removal BacteriaYYYYYY Removal VirusesYYYYNY Removal GiardiaYYYYYY.
Removal CryptosporidiumNYYYYY Taste effected? YNNNNN Weight per unitfew gfew g99g103g+varyGas+stove Pack sizetinytinysmallsmallLarger (pump)Smaller (bottle)Medium (gas+stove) Batteries? NNYYNN Time to work Bacteria301515ImmedImmedImmed Time to work Protozoa120 (not crypto)30- 240< 240immedimmedImmed Max Volumeanyany4 litres1 litreanyRecepticle size Short term Cost$10/box$10/box$160$100$90/50Gas/stove 4. Describe the symptoms of mild, severe and chronic dehydration, and how a lack of water might cause these symptoms to occur. Give your answer in 1-2 paragraphs Mild dehydration symptoms are:
• Increased or constant vomiting for more than a day • Fever over 38. 3 C, but less than 39. 4C • Diarrhoea for more than 2 days • Weight loss • Decreased urine production • Weakness • Dry mouth • Thirst * Athletes, the elderly and people who don’t drink sufficient amounts of water (especially in hot weather) can all suffer from mild dehydration. Severe dehydration symptoms are: • Fever higher than 39. 4C • Confusion • Lethargy • Seizures • Difficulty breathing • Chest or abdominal pain • Fainting • No urine in the last 12 hours • Migraine headache Chronic dehydration symptoms are:
• Fatigue, Energy Loss: Dehydration of the tissues causes enzymatic activity to slow down • Constipation: the colon takes too much water to give to other parts of the body • Digestive Disorders: the secretions of digestive juices are less • High and Low Blood Pressure: The body’s blood volume is not enough to completely fill the entire set of arteries, veins, and capillaries • Gastritis, Stomach Ulcers: To protect its mucous membranes from being destroyed by the acidic digestive fluid it produces, the stomach secretes a layer of mucus • Respiratory Troubles:
The mucous membranes of the respiratory region are slightly moist to protect the respiratory tract from substances that might be present in inhaled air • Acid-Alkaline Imbalance: Dehydration activates an enzymatic slowdown producing acidification • Excess Weight and Obesity: We may overeat because we crave foods rich in water. Thirst is often confused with hunger • Eczema: Your body needs enough moisture to sweat 0. 6 – 0.
7L of water, the amount necessary to dilute toxins so they do not irritate the skin • Cholesterol: When dehydration causes too much liquid to be removed from inside the cells, the body tries to stop this loss by producing more cholesterol • Cystitis, Urinary Infections: If toxins contained in urine are insufficiently diluted, they attack the urinary mucous membranes • Rheumatism: Dehydration abnormally increases the concentration of toxins in the blood and cellular fluids, and the pains increase in proportion to the concentration of the toxins • Premature Aging: The body of a newborn child is composed of 80 percent liquid, but this percentage declines to no more than 70 percent in an adult and continues to decline with age.
A lot of the chronic dehydration list is a “consequence”, not necessarily a symptom e. g. Premature aging, cholesterol 5. Discuss the effect of 5 different water impurities on human health. Allow 2-3 sentences for each one. •Contaminants in water are more likely to cause chronic health effects – effects that occur long after repeated exposure to small amounts of a chemical. Examples of chronic health effects include cancer, liver and kidney damage, disorders of the nervous system, damage to the immune system, and birth defects.
Contaminants can be: Organics (potentially toxic chemicals and metals as pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides and Volatile organic chemicals, Inorganics ( toxic metals like arsenic, barium, chromium, lead, mercury, and silver from natural sources, industrial processes, and the materials used in your plumbing system) and radioactive elements (Radon is a radioactive contaminant that results from the decay of uranium in soils and rocks) •Protozoal Infections: Amoebiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, Microsporidiosis, Cyclosporiasis, Giardiasis and general symptoms are abdominal discomfort, fatigue, weight loss, bloating, fever, flu-like symptoms, watery diarrhoea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches.
•Parasites Infections: Schistosomiasis ,Dracunculiasis ,Taeniasis, Fasciolopsiasis, Hymenolepiasis, Onchocerciasis, Echinococcosis, coenurosis, Ascariasis, Enterobiasis symptoms can vary from a rash or itchy skin, swollen lymph nodes, fever, chills, cough and muscle aches to allergic reactions, vomiting, diarrhoea, asthmatic attack.
•Bacterial Infections: Botulism, Campylobacteriosis, Cholera, E. coli Infection, M. marinum infection, Dysentery, Legionellosis, Leptospirosis Otitis Externa, Salmonellosis, Typhoid fever, Vibrio Illness and symptoms can be from fever, flu like symptoms to more severe others. •Viral Infections: Adenovirus infection, Gastroenteritis, SARS, Hepatitis A, Poliomyelitis, Polyomavirus infection and symptoms include common cold symptoms, pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise,, abdominal pain, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, sore throat.