The aim of the experiment was to investigate “how minority conformity is affected when they are shown answers of the majority, compared to minority participants who are not shown majority answers. Ther main researcher for the study of conformity was Jenness. Jeness was the first person to study conformity and his experiment involved a glass bottle filledwith beans. He then asked participants to estimate the amount of beans in the bottle. Thereafter, he put the group in a room with the bottle and asked them to give a group estimate. He then interviewed the subjects one by one asking them whether they would like to change their original estimate. He found out that the majority of individual estimates changed to be closer to the group estimates.
The experimental hypothesis for this investigation is “There will be a significant difference in the amount of conformity shown by the minority when they are shown answers of majority regarding the estimates of sweets in a jar compared to when the minority are not shown answers from the majority”. The experiment method used for this investigation was a field experiment, in this case the investigation took place within the college canteen.
The research design used for this investigation was independent measures design. Thus, there were 20 different people in each condition. There was 2 conditions used, in one condition minority participants were shown majority answers,. On the other hand, in the other condition minority participants were not shown majority answers. The sampling method used was opportunity sample. Participants who were readily available were chosen. This was the most convenient sampling method for this investigation.
The investigation took place in the college canteen. Students were asked whether they would like to take part in an experiment. They were then given the consent form to read, and then sign it if they wished to take part. Thr participant was then taken to a empty table. They were then showed a jar filled with sweets for a maximum time of 2 minutes. Thereafter, they were requested to speak out their estimate and the estimate was recorded. They were then given a debrief sheet to read, and if they had any questions they were free to do so.
The hypothesis was accepted. A conclusion was found that minority participants conformed to majority estimates compared to minority participants who were not shown majority estimates. The experimenter found out that a huge 71% of minority participants conformed when shown previous answers. On the other hand there was only 14% minority participants who coformed when shown previous answers.
In conclusion, the experimenter found out that conformity was shown in the investigation. This is because when participants were shown previous answers, their 71% of the estimates were very close to the group estimate. However, when participants were not shown previous answers only 14% gave a answer close to the group estimate. Therefore, showing previous answers increases level of conformity and not showing previous answers decreases the amount of conformity shown.
Psychology Coursework – conformity The research method chosen for this coursework is conformity. Conformity can basically help show how people change their original answer or opinion to a question/or in a discussion when there is real or imagined group pressure. This shows how people are influenced by other peoples opinions, or by group pressure. This type of research has been chosen as there are theories which show how peoples perceptions are changed by group pressure which helps understand how peoples views are changed.
There are 2 Influences that affect conformity. The first one is informational influences, this is where the person does not know the answer and lacks information. People just assume and believe that the other participants know more. The second is normative influences, This is where the participant confirms and may change his original opinion only to be accepted as part of the group, and they don’t want to be the odd person. This may apply to ashch’;s study.
There are 3 types of conformity. Firstly, there is compliance. This is where the participant confirms and gives the same opinion as others, even though they stick to their original opinion. Second is internalisation, where the participant changes his/her opinion as they are persuaded to believe that the group is right. Finally, identification is where the participants just confirm because everyone else is, there is no reason for confirming, they just think everyone else is right.
Studies and Theories have been made by psychologists like sheriff, Asch and crutchfield. Sherifs study involved subjects estimating the amount of movement which they observed on a point of light in a very dark environment which is called the auto kinetic effect. They made their estimates in groups, where all members were present. The results were that all members experiments were pretty similar, and a group estimate.
Solomon asch’s study involved a student who was influenced by 7 other subjects. These 7 subjects were made to answer incorrectly intentionally, and the exceptional of the 1 individual was placed at the end to give his true opinion. The results that ash found out was that 78% of subjects gave at least one incorrect response, the same as the majority. Asch’s conclusion was that the subjects still conform to a majority view even though it is obvious that that the majority of people were incorrect.