Hypothesis – blood glucose level is usually affected by an activity or exertion such as a sport. Squash is a very exerting game and so a lot of glucose is required in providing energy while playing the game. The result is that the blood glucose shall fall. However homeostasis involves positive feedback and negative feedback. In this case , after a fall in the blood glucose level, positive feedback shall work to regulate the blood glucose level , by breaking down glycogen in the liver to glucose. Therefore the original glucose level shall be attained.
However blood glucose level can also be influenced by the type of food that an individual has taken preceding the test. this then determines whether positive feedback or negative feedback shall occur Procedure 1. samples of blood of 2 volunteers were obtained using a sterilised lancets 2. The blood sample of an individual was then placed on the film that was provided by the glucometer kit 3. The film was inserted in the glucometer slot and the blood glucose level value was read off the screen and recorded 4. step 2 and 3 were repeated for the second volunteer
5. Afterwards, the game squash was started, and immediately the stopwatch too 6. the game was played for one and a quarter hours 7. At the end of the game, the blood glucose level was checked again and the readings were recorded on a table . Data collection Volunteers Blood glucose level before squash+ or – 0. 00mmol/L Conclusion and Evaluation The hypothesis was proved to be true. Since volunteer 1 had a glucose rich breakfast of dates and honey, he had a high blood glucose level, which was regulated by homeostasis by employment of positive feedback.
The glucose in his blood was broken down to provide energy and so his blood glucose level fell. As for volunteer 2, she had a normal breakfast and so her glucose level was relatively normal. However as she played, her blood glucose fell and so negative feedback occurred in order to regulate the glucose level in her blood. This accounts for the higher value of blood glucose level than the previous after playing the game of squash. Aim To find out if more chloride is expelled during sport or retained during sport such as to influence water retention or water loss.
Hypothesis concentration of urine depends on the water needs of an individual, depending on the type of sport and hydration level. The more the urine is concentrated, the less hydrated an individual is and as such more chloride is let out into the blood so as to retain water in the body. The less concentrated the urine of an individual is shows that less chloride is let out into the blood so that water is lost and not retained. This mechanism enables for the blood plasma concentration to be at a constant.
varying amounts of water and salts are selectively eliminated by the kidney depending on their levels in the body. amount Chloride can therefore be detected in a urine sample. 1. 2 large test-tubes were labeled A and B. 2. Urine samples of specimen A and B were collected into the respective test-tubes. 3. Specimen A and B were let out to play basketball for an hour and a half. 4. Their urine samples were then collected after the game in two other large test-tubes. 5. 2cm3 portions of each of the urine samples before the game were pipetted and transferred into clean porcelain bowls that were labeled.
6. 10cm3 portions of silver nitratye solution were pipetted and then added into each of the porcelain bowls. 7. The mixture was left to stand for five minutes and a white coagulated precipitate formed . 8. A spatula end of Iron alum was then added to the precipitates. 9. Unprecipitated silver was then titrated with 0. 1M KCNS until a permanent red colour was produced 10. The above procedure was repeated for the urine samples collected after the game. Data collection Urine samples concentration in mg/cm3 + or – 0. 05 cm3
Analysis Specimen A had ^ glasses of water in the course of the day before playing basketball while specimen B had only one glass. This background information accounts for the reason as to why A had less concentrated urine as compared to B. This could be observed from the intensity of the colour of the urine. B had to reabsorb more water in order to maintain the water concentration in the blood plasma . this was controlled homeostatically by the release of the antidiuretic hormone which controls the reabsorption of water.
As for A, he had to loose water so that the concentration of blood plasma was less dilute. Lower concentration of chloride ions was seen in the urine of specimen A since the body did not require to release many chloride ions to retain water. As for B more chloride ions were released into the urine as he required to retain more water. Conclusion It is therefore true to say that our hypothesis was proven true. Water retention and loss is regulated homeostatically by the body through the release of varying amounts of chloride ins into the urine, depending on the body’s needs for water.
Aim To investigate indirectly the carbon dioxide amount during swimming Hypothesis During swimming, carbon dioxide content increases while oxygen content reduces. This leads to an increase in the chest cavity and also the need for oxygen in the body and thus the panting. Chest cavity size therefore depends on the body’s need for oxygen. The chest cavity sizes of the two volunteers increased. This is because the volume of the lungs increased so that more oxygen could be absorbed within a larger surface area. Also so that more carbon dioxide could be expelled .