How One Would Clone a Human Cell

Cloning is a process of making exact genetically copies of an organism or an individual. It can be performed for several reasons, and is basically of two types, namely: – reproductive cloning and embryo-cloning (HGP, 2006). In reproductive cloning, the genetic material from the nucleus of the adult cell (somatic cell) is transferred into a fertilized egg after removing its genetic material. The modified egg cell with new genetic material is treated by stimulation so that the cells multiply (HGP, 2006).

After the embryo reaches a certain stage in the laboratory (under controlled conditions), it is transferred to the uterus so that it can develop and be born (HGP, 2006). The Scottish sheep Dolly was produced by this process (Ridley, M. , 1999). Many people feel that through cloning we are creating exact copies of an organism. However, this is always not right. By cloning we are only producing individuals identical in their genetic type (Harris, John, 1998). They may or may not appear alike. Dolly, for instance, did not have similar appearance as the original sheep.

Embryo-cloning or ‘therapeutic cloning’ is a process by which embryo cells are obtained for research purposes after the embryo has multiplied and reached a certain stage (i. e. containing about 50 to 150 cells) (Harris, John, 1998). It was previously performed exclusively in animals, and in 1993, it first performed on human embryos by Jerry Hall and Robert Stillman at the George Washington Medical Center (Harris, John, 1998). The embryo cells (also known as ‘embryonic stem cells”) are obtained from inner cell mass of the embryo about 5 days after fertilization (HGP, 2006).

They have the potential to differentiate into hundreds of different types of cells found in the human body and hence are invaluable for research. These stem cells could be used to replace tissues in the body that have been degenerated due to disease or injury (HGP, 2006). They could also serve in organ transplantation. Besides, stem cells could be used to examine if the developing embryo is going to have any abnormalities in the future. In this way, it could benefit millions of couples suffering from infertility (Harris, John, 1998). When considering the ethical implications, always the reasons behind cloning should be considered.

Cloning should be permitted only in extreme circumstances, in which no other approaches for a way out exist. Therapeutic cloning may sound more ethical because it is usually performed for a good purpose and on cells that may or may not give rise to a new live (as its existence depends on external factors). It could be a hope for many needing organ transplants or couples suffering from infertility. Under such situations, cloning would imply ‘mere use of sophisticated technology to solve existent issues’. On the other hand, reproductive cloning may seem to be ethical right.

Many may feel that through reproductive cloning, the dead could be brought to life. Humans with very good intellectual powers, whose lives had benefited mankind, may be brought to life through cloning, after their death. However, if we bring back people to life after their natural death, then we would not be respecting the importance of GOD-given existence. This would be ethically and morally wrong, because man is performing the role of GOD. If such a technology is permitted, humans would be utilized as machines. People may even start killing others in order to produce clones. In 2004, the current US President George W.

Bush, urged nations to support ban on both therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning (The White House, 2001). However, several nations were against this. They felt that therapeutic cloning should be permitted because it could benefit millions requiring tissue transplants and artificial embryo implantation. However, the President felt that using stem cells for scientific research is both morally and ethically wrong (The White House, 2001). He considers that using the stem cells would ultimately destroy it, thus putting an end to a potential source of life (The White House, 2001).

He feels that every embryo cell existent is a very unique creation of GOD, as they express or contain the genetic material of a human being, and require to be treated with respect (The White House, 2001). He also considered that couples, who donate excessive embryos, should not be used even if the embryos are going to degenerate, because we should have the respect for them and not experiment or exploit them (The White House, 2001). I feel that we should permit stem cell research as it is beneficial to mankind, but it should be done with care.

Embryos that are usually unused during fertilization should be selected for research, but they should not be destroyed after use. Instead, as these cells can continue to grow and multiply, possibility of utilizing them repetitively should be looked into. In every instance, the benefits to mankind and the dangers to the embryos should be carefully evaluated, and only if an outstanding benefit exists for mankind, should the embryos be utilized. Only research that is being conducted to seek a solution to serious problems that we are experiencing should be proceeded with.

Research conducted on umbilical cord tissues (that do not have a potential to develop into a new life, but have the ability to multiply into various cell types) and animal embryo research should be encouraged. May be research on these tissues could bring out surprising results.


Harris, John (1998). Clones, Genes and Immorality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press. HGP Information (2006). Cloning Fact Sheet. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Website:

Embryonic stem cells are embryos that are developed from eggs that have been fertilized in a laboratory excess of which is then donated for research purposes with an informed permission of the donors. These embryos are eggs that are not …

While many people agree that medical advances should be geared towards the treatment of incurable diseases, opponents of stem cell research adopt this position due to the harvesting of stem cells for medical research or practice. Incidentally, embryos have to …

There is no other issue throughout American history, which has produced such controversy across opinion of the general public. Not slavery, prohibition, or abortion has aroused such a significant dispute regarding specific dilemma, than cloning with stem cell research did. …

At present, there is no federal ban on therapeutic cloning.[1]  The House initially passed two bills prohibiting cloning but both were discontinued in the Senate. In 2001, President Bush authorized the first federal funding on stem cell research but backtracked …

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