Heart rate

This experiment was designed to show the effects of exercise and recovery of exercise on heart rate in the human anatomy and physiology lab. It was hypothesized by many that once exercise began, heart rate would increase along with cardiac output as a whole. Once exercise stopped, the heart rate would return to normal functioning. It was also hypothesized that both the apical pulses and the radial pulses would remain constant or otherwise know the same. The apical and the radial pulses were measured on everybody throughout one minute.

The heart rates were then measured again after the subjects exercised for three minutes and again they were measured after one minute of recovery for the last measurement. The overall results as we exercised the radial and apical heart rates increased. During the one minute recovery time the subjects heart rate began to decrease back to homeostasis. As a whole, these observations proved that as exercise occurred, the pulses were increased. Introduction: The cardiovascular system contains the heart, which pumps the blood and the blood vessels that carry blood throughout the body (Marieb and Mitchell).

In this lab my group Cassidy, Janelle and I were to find each of our heart rates during the Initial at rest, after 3 minutes of exercise and after 2 minute of recovery. This investigated the effects of exercise and recovery on heart rate and cardiac output. We collected each other’s data throughout the whole experiment, taking turns taking each other’s heart rates and keeping track of time. In this experiment we were to find out why are your heart rate raised when exercising and the difference of heart rate between fetuses and adults.

The hypothesis I came up with is, Fetuses heart rate is faster and the amount of blood being pumped through there system has to stay at a constant rate to keep the body warm and they are growing rapidly so there metabolism needs to keep up with the heart rate. Adults when they exercise have a higher heart rate because when the muscles contract and the amount of output of blood needs to be pushed into the muscles and limbs and the heart needs to work harder. In order for the blood to be pumped throughout the body, there are two different circuits.

The pulmonary circuit, the right side of the heart, carries the blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart. This blood contains oxygen poor blood and high in CO2. The second Circuit is the Systemic System, which is the left side of the heart, and is oxygen rich blood being carried to the other parts of the body and organs. The blood travels from both the superior and inferior vena cava into the right atrium, the tricuspid valve, and then into the right ventricle, this then goes through the pulmonary artery out to the lungs.

The pulmonary veins then bring the blood from the lungs back into the heart into the left atrium, through the bicuspid valve, into the left ventricle and out through the aorta into the rest of the body. Cardiac Output is the amount of blood being pumped by the heart per minute and the heart rate is the number of heart beats per minute. Below are the results of the tests we had to complete to figure out the average heart beats in our class and in our group.

This test we did will prove the hypothesis and figure out what the difference between a fetuses heart rate and an adults heart right, also why does our heart rate raise during exercise. Our group picked up from the table a stethoscope, alcohol wipes and cotton swabs. Each of us grabbed our own so we could do each one of ours faster and more accurate when two people count the same person. We first took the heart rate of each of us for one minute testing the apical and radial heartbeat.

The person being tested did their own apical pulse with the stethoscope, placing the top of the stethoscope underneath there shirt on the sternum where the heart would be near the PMI. The other person takes the person being tested pulse using the radial pulse which is under the thumb near the end of the radius. The results will show a bit difference, after one minute. Do not use your own thumb when testing the other person’s radial pulse because your pulse is going through your thumb and could mess up the results. Use your middle finger and your index finger.

Record your data and then move on to the next person, do this till every one of your partners have had their pulse tested. After the initial at rate was tested each of us had to do 3 minutes of any type of exercise we wanted as long as we were moving at a fast pace for 3 minutes. After the 3 minutes were done, we then repeated the steps above testing both the radial and apical pulse for one minute! And you once again do this for every person in your group or partner. When each person has rested for one minute we then tested each person in our group’s apical and radial pulse again for one minute, as a one

minute of recovery! We then wrote down the data and figured out the averages of all of our results. The results for the initial heart rate were just a resting rate and that was just a normal heart rate and pulse for the apical and radial pulse. After we did our 3 minutes of exercise the heart rate was then tested and was raised about 20 extra beats! Then once we had rested the one minute it then was reduced down almost back to the initial pulse. Each of us was only tested once and the data was recorded after every test. Data:

NameInitial at RestAfter 3 minutes of ExerciseAfter 1 minute recovery Kayla Janelle Cassidy Average: Apical: 95 Radial: 92 Apical:85 Radial:74 Apical: 71 Radial:70 Apical: 83. 66 Radial: 78. 66Apical: 147 Radial:130 Apical:115 Radial:98 Apical: 98 Radial:102 Apical:120 Radial:110Apical:125 Radial:115 Apical:95 Radial:85 Apical:85 Radial:85 Apical:101. 66 Radial: 95 Plot: After the results were shown that my hypothesis was not all correct! The reasoning of the higher heart rate when you exercise is caused by the increase of cardiac output of the heart.

When you exercise the muscles need oxygen and the muscles and joints “transmit signals to the cardiac centers, signifying that the muscles are active and will quickly need an increased blood flow”, According to Saladin’s Anatomy and Physiology book. The heart must work harder if the blood, oxygen, and nutrients to pump its way from the systemic circuit to the parts of the body are used, which takes a lot of effort for the heart. “The increased energy of the heart produces more wastes causing a heart rate increase so the blood can carry away the wastes more quickly.

” Says an article I found on the internet. No unique observations have affected our class’s results in any way, we had a small class and all of us are around the same age. My heart rate was very much higher than almost everyone’s in the class, because I have asthma but I play sports. Our results shown above do support my hypothesis, when you are at rest your pulse both radial and apical are lower and are more consistent, where if you exercise for the 3 minutes your heart rate by the minute increases significantly.

Mine raised 52 beats for apical and 38 beats for my radial! The radial pulse is lower most of the time because it takes more time to get to the arm where the apical pulse is near the heart. Each person in the groups’ heart rate rose during the 3 minutes of exercise but after 1 minute only some of ours went back to the resting rate. Some conditions that might have affected the study would be not participating correctly for the 3 minutes of exercise; any health conditions might affect it and different ages.

After the results were shown we then realized how much of a difference your heart rate changes when you work out or do any sort of activity. When we do activity our heart rate raises and it rises to the same as a fetus’s heart rate. Our study shows the difference between at rest, exercise and 1 minute of recovery. The change in heart rate was observed after exercise supported my hypothesis is that, I said heart rate increases so more oxygen in the blood is pumped into other areas faster.

This affects the cardiac cycle and the cardiac output because the cardiac cycle is increasing and more cardiac output is being pumped throughout the body at a faster rate so the oxygen is in parts of the body that is needed the most! My heart rate never recovered really after the one minute because it takes a lot longer than one minute to get the heart pumping back regularly then at the resting rate. Our class’s average for the Initial at rest was Apical: 80 and Radial: 70, after 3 minutes of exercise Apical: 116 and Radial: 107, after 1 minute of Recovery Apical: 94 and Radial: 89.

These results were very close to our group’s results, and agree with the expected average adult heart rate. The Apical and the Radial pulses were very similar to each other because it’s the same pulse just the radial pulse is a bit farther away from the apical. The fetuses’ heart rate is almost the same as ours when we exercise (adults). The fetus’s heart rate is a lot faster than our heart rate because they are much smaller and are rapidly growing at a different rate then what adults are growing. Also there metabolism is a lot higher than an adults which makes the heart rate faster.

There are significant chances that are made from when a fetus is in the womb to birth. A heart is fully functioning when it is the womb but the foramen ovale turns into the fossa ovalis, the ductus arteriosus turns into the ligamentum arteriosum, Umbilical vein turns into the ligamentrum teres and the umbilical arteries turn into the medial umbilical ligaments. These changes have to be made to survive in the womb also to survive on its own outside of the womb! The fetal heart rate is markedly faster than adults because of these changes and size of the fetus.

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