Major concerns regarding the health and development of a preterm Labor that happens before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy, often results in the birth of a low- birth weight baby and the reasons of preterm labor are not carefully understood, however, we are aware that women with following risk factors are at bigger risk for delivering prematurely. • Had a premature baby in a previous pregnancy. • Have certain abnormalities of the uterus or cervix. • Are pregnant with twins, triplets or more. Factors that may add to premature birth and/or fetal growth restriction are the following.
• Birth defects – Babies with definite birth defects are more probable to be growth restricted because genetic circumstances and structural abnormalities may bind normal development. • Chronic health problems in the mother – There is a higher risk of reduction in the birth rate if the mother has high blood pressure, heart, lung, kidney problem or diabetes, etc. • Smoking – Pregnant women who smoke cigarettes are almost double as expected to have a low-birth weight baby as women who do not; moreover smoking also slows fetal expansion and enhances the risk of premature delivery.
Maternal breast milk is the recommended form of enteral nutrition for the preterm or low birth weight infants. A major advantage of feeding with breast milk is that the release of immunoprotective and growth factors to the immature gut mucosa may avert serious unfavorable outcomes including invasive infection necrotising enterocolitis, however there is an issue that the nutritional necessities of preterm or low birth weight infants who are born with comparatively poor nutrient reserves and are subject to extra metabolic stresses balanced with term infants may not be fully met by enteral feeding with breast milk.
These deficiencies may have unfavorable consequences for growth and development and proof exists that supplementation of human milk with nutrient fortifiers enlarges short-term growth rates. A variety of formula milks (usually modified cow milk), as an alternative to maternal breast milk, are accessible for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants and these vary in energy, protein and mineral content. It is observed that most parents are unknown with the complexities of care necessary for an enormously preterm infant in the intensive care unit and after discharge from the hospital.
It is frequently essential to educate parents in small segments at frequent intervals to help them comprehend the issues. They need apparent and reliable explanations of the diverse helpful procedures that will likely be essential during the first days after the infant’s birth and family members should also be informed about the possible potential complications of extreme prematurity and prolonged intensive care.
Moreover, they should be provided with an over view of the range of survival rates and of the rates and types of long-term disabilities which can be expected. Obstetric and neonatal physicians, main care physicians, and other suitable staff should confer to ensure that reliable and precise information is provided to the parents. Counseling should be receptive to cultural and ethnic diversity, and an expert translator should be accessible for parents whose primary language differs from the language of the care providers.