This is the third block in the first semester, running for 4 weeks and will deal with Medical Genetics and Immunology with a brief introduction to Molecular Medicine. Medical Genetics is one of the most advanced fields of medicine and Molecular Genetics is now integral to all aspects of biomedical science. Physicians of the 21st century are expected to have an in-depth knowledge of the principles of human genetics and their application to a wide variety of clinical problems. Immunology is the study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them.
In addition, we develop immune responses against our own proteins (and other molecules) in autoimmunity and against our own aberrant cells in tumor immunity. So in this module you will appreciate the importance of the host’s immune system [cellular and humoral] in protecting the body from the offending stimuli or invading pathogens. The role of HLA [Human Leukocyte Antigen]/MHC [Major Histocompatibility Complex] in the antigen recognition, its association in disease will also be discussed.
You will be able to understand why the host’s susceptibility to infection is exaggerated with deficiency of the immune system [immunodeficiency] and also appreciate that such exaggerated or inappropriate immune responses in the body can have detrimental effects on the body [hypersensitivity reactions] and may result in disease [autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases]. You will learn about the chemistry of DNA and RNA along with the processes of mutation & repair, transcription and translation and mechanisms of formation of proteins.
This module will also enable you to appreciate the basic fundamentals of Molecular Medicine that is the application of powerful modern bioscience approaches such as molecular cell biology and molecular genetics to the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. This block will enable you to learn about the details of genetics and immunology and diseases associated with the various genetic abnormalities and their occurrence in the population, together with anti cancer treatment. Pharmacology will introduce you the antibiotics that inhibit ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA gyrase in bacteria in this block. 4. GENERAL OBJECTIVES.
By the end of this block, you should be able to: 1 Explain the nature of heredity at the level of the individual and the population. 2 Explain the biochemical and molecular basis of genetic disorders. 3 Understand the ways in which environment and heredity contribute to the development of multifactorial disorders. 4 Apply the knowledge of genetics in diagnosis and risk assessment. 5 Describe the organization and the cells of the immune system. 6 describe the characteristics and phases of various immune reactions in the body 7 Explain the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases and outline the principles of treatment.
8 Explain the mechanism of graft rejection and immune responses to tumours. 9 Appreciate the role of genetics in preventive medicine 10 Explain the mechanism of action of anti cancer drugs 11 Apply knowledge of genetics, immunology & molecular biology in the practice of medicine 12 Explain the mechanism of action of antibiotics that act by inhibiting ribosomal protein synthesis in bacteria, side effects of the same and their clinical indications of use. 13 Explain the mechanism of action of antibiotics that act by inhibiting DNA gyrase in bacteria, side effects of the same and their clinical indications of use. 5.
TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES (TLA) The teaching-learning process in this module will include lectures, practical sessions and self-directed learning (SDL). These sessions are aimed towards active participation of the students for group presentation, in addition to enhancing critical thinking and communication skills. In addition, it will help students towards understanding the integration of basic sciences and clinical applications. Fixed learning Resources (FLR) will also be made available as a learning source during your own free time. You are encouraged to use the SDL (self-directed learning) periods wisely by reading up your texts.
The specific learning objectives given in this Study Guide will help you ensure that you cover the relevant information on the topics. Also use the SDL slots during the week for info search (e. g. at the library and other resource centers). You may also want to organize yourself in small groups to learn. Remember that these slots are there for you to effectively manage time in the most productive way for learning. The fixed learning resources (FLR), CAL (computer-aided learning), are some of the activities you may engage during the SDL. 6. Subject Coverage. The total number of lectures (LEC) and other TLAs for each subject are as follows:
Table 1: Subject Coverage in GIM SUBJECTS GEN IMM PHM Total TLA Number of sessions x hours LEC 19 x 1 13 x 1 6×1 38 sessions FLR – 1 x 2 – 2 session TUT 1 x 2 3×2 2×2 12 session Total 21 21 10 52 hours GEN: Genetics IMM: Immunology PHM: Pharmacology 7. STUDENT ASSESSMENT Student assessment in this block comprises on-going terminal end-block exam (EBX). Continuous assessments (40%) are in the form of assignments or mini test. The mini test will be scheduled in the third week and contents of each discipline of the block are examined. One mini test will be conducted which will cover the contents of Genetics and Immunology.
The block examination will be conducted as a part of Semester Examination, conducted at the end of the First Semester, ESX 1 The block exam (60%) consists of: 1an MCQ paper [multiple true-false / MTF] 2. an objective, structured practical exam (OSPE) Attendance of at least 80% in group sessions (practical / fixed learning resource, tutorials, etc) is a prerequisite for sitting the end-sem exam. Assessment Format. Table 2: Assessment Format for GIM Type of Assessment Component Duration % Marks Total Continuous Assessment (CTX) End-Block Exam (EBX) (30 MTFs) [GEN, IMM, PHM] 60 mins 40% 40% End-Semester 1 Exam (ESX 1) a.
Theory Paper: 45 MTFs 90 mins 50% 60% b. OSPE: 1 station 4 mins/station 4 mins 10% Total 100% Good behaviour and attendance are prerequisites for sitting the relevant examinations. You must have: at least 80% attendance in small group sessions (including Practicals, PBL, Tutorials), an attitude that is compatible with the integrity and practice of a competent doctor. 8. A. LESSON PLAN: GENETICS Metabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides. TLA:LEC1 x 1 hour Lecturer:Assoc Prof Dr Maung Maung Aye Desired Learning Outcomes On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. list the purine and pyrimidine bases.
2. briefly describe the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases. 3. briefly describe the catabolism of purine and pyrimidine bases. 4. explain the metabolic process underlying the blood uric acid level. 5. predict what would happen in small joints if blood uric acid level increases. Contents 1 Components of nucleotides and nucleic acids. 2 Types of Purine bases. 3 Types of Pyrimidine bases. 4 Synthesis of purine bases 5 Synthesis of pyrimidine bases. 6 Catabolism of purine bases. 7 Hyperuricemia and gout. 8 Catabolism of pyrimidine bases. Topic : Structure and Function of Nucleic Acid: (DNA & RNA) TLA : Lecture 2.
Lecturer : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Maung Maung Aye Desired Learning Outcomes On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1list the components of nucleotides in DNA & RNA structure. 2explain the formation of phosphodiester bonds. 3describe the structure of DNA & RNA. 4explain the functions of DNA in terms of: Gene. Storage of Genetic Characteristics. Gene Expression. Replication. Transcription. 5explain the various types of RNA and their functions. Contents 1. Genetic materials. 2. Central Dogma of Storage and expression of Genetic Information. 3. DNA: Structure and Functions. 4. RNA: Structure and Functions.
5. Biomedical Importance. Topic : Cell cycle & DNA Replication TLA : Lecture 3 Lecturer : Dr. Sathivel Arumugam DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES: On completion of the topic you should be able to: 1. Describe different phases of cell cycle. 2. Explain the regulation of cell cycle 3. List the enzymes involved in DNA replication 4. Describe the stages of DNA replication CONTENTS: 1. Cell Cycle a. Phases of Cell cycle b. Regulations of cell cycle c. Check points in cell cycle 2. DNA Replication a. Steps in DNA synthesis b. DNA repair Topic :
Inheritance patterns and Genetic Variation TLA : Lecture 4 & 7 Lecturer: Dr. S. Ghosh DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Discuss pedigree and its importance. 2. Describe patterns of inheritance 3. Discuss human genetic variation in normal and abnormal conditions. CONTENT: 1. Drawing pedigrees 2. Autosomal dominant and recessive genes 3. X – linked traits 4. Non- mendelian inheritance 5. Sources of human genetic variation Topic : Gene Mutation & DNA Repair TLA : Lecture 5 Lecturer : Dr. Sathivel Arumugam DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES: On completion of the topic you should be able to: 1. Describe the process of Genetic mutation 2.
List the different type of mutations 3. Explain the consequences of genetic mutation 4. List the types of damage to DNA 5. Describe various mechanism of DNA repair CONTENTS: 1. Gene Mutations a. types of mutations b. consequences of mutations 2. DNA repair a. Types of DNA repair i. Mismatch repair ii. Base excision repair iii. Nucleotide excision repair b. Mechanism of DNA repair Topic : Transcription – RNA synthesis TLA : Lecture 6 Lecturer : Dr. Jaiprakash Mohanraj DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES: On completion of the topic you should be able to: 1. describe the stages of transcription -RNA synthesis 2.
list the different enzymes in RNA synthesis 3. explain post transcriptional modification CONTENT: 1. RNA synthesis a. steps involved in RNA synthesis b. Introns & Exons c. post transcriptional modification Topic : Translation – Protein / RNA Synthesis TLA : Lecture 8 Lecturer : Dr. Jaiprakash Mohanraj DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES: On completion of the topic you should be able to: 1. Define and characterize genetic code 2. List out the components required for translation 3. Describe the steps in protein synthesis 4. Explain co- & posttranslational modifications CONTENT: 1. Protein Synthesis a. Genetic code.
b. Components required for protein synthesis c. Steps involved in protein synthesis d. Post translational modifications in protein synthesis Topic : Regulation of Gene Expression TLA : Lecture 9 Lecturer : Dr. Jaiprakash Mohanraj DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES: On completion of the topic you should be able to: 1. explain the types of Gene regulation 2. explain the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes with lac operon model 3. explain the regulation gene expression in eukaryotes CONTENT: 1. lac operon model 2. types of gene expression 3. structure and regulation of lac operon 4. gene amplification 5.
gene rearrangement 6. gene loss 7. methylation of DNA Topic : Clinical Cytogenetics 1 & 2 TLA : Lecture 10 & 13 Lecturer : Prof Dr Mehboob Khan DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Define clinical cytogenetics 2. Describe various chromosomal anomalies 3. Discuss molecular cytogenetics and its applications. CONTENT: 1. Karyotypes and terminology 2. Numerical chromosome abnormalities 3. Sex chromosome aneuploidy 4. Structural chromosome abnormalities: translocations, inversions, ring chromosomes and isochromosomes 5. Molecular Cytogenetics: FISH and spectral karyotyping
Topic : Single gene disorders 1 & 2 TLA : Lecture 11 &12 Lecturer : Dr. S. Ghosh DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. describe biochemical and molecular basis of single gene disorders 2. discuss inborn errors of metabolism 3. discuss non – mendelian single gene disorders 4. describe genetic basis of mitochondrial diseases CONTENT: 1. Autosomal dominant, recessive and sex linked disorders 2. Inborn errors of metabolism 3. Non – mendelian single gene disorders 4. Mitochondrial diseases – mitochondrial traits 5. Other factors characterizing single gene disorders.
Topic : Multifactorial diseases 1 & 2 TLA : Lecture 14 & 15 Lecturer : Prof Dr Khin Myo Thu DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. discuss multifactorial nature of human traits – normal and abnormal 2. describe heritability of multifactorial disorders 3. understand and discuss the interaction of various genetic and environmental factors. CONTENT: 1. Heritability in Multifactorial Inheritance and patterns of Multifactorial inheritance. 2. Characteristic features of Multifactorial inheritance. 3. Approaches to demonstrate Genetic susceptibility to Common diseases.
4. Approaches to demonstrate role of Environmental factors in Common diseases. 5. Examples of some Common diseases with Multifactorial Inheritance. Topic : Gene therapy – recent developments TLA : Lecture 16 Lecturer : Dr. Soon Siew Choo DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. discuss an overview of diagnostics and management strategies of genetic disorders 2. discuss metabolic manipulation for treatment of genetic diseases 3. discuss strategies of gene therapy, knock-out model, molecular scissors, transgenic animal models etc. CONTENT: 1. Metabolic manipulation.
2. Manipulation at the level of the protein 3. Organ transplantation leading to modification of the somatic genotype 4. Introduction to Gene Therapy 5. Animal models and transgenic Topic 12 : Genetics & Cancer – Review TLA : Lecture 17 Lecturer : Prof Dr Mehboob Khan Desired learning outcomes: On completion of the topic, the student should be able to: 1. To know the importance of cytogenetic in the pathogenesis of cancer. 2. Chromosomal analysis 3. Applications of Molecular cytogenetics. 4. Oncogenes and antioncogenes Contents: 1. Cancer and Cytogenetic 2. Indications of Chromosomal analysis 3.
Prenatal diagnostic techniques 4. FISH technique and its application 5. PCR and its application 6. Role of oncogenes and antioncogenes in cancer development. Topic : From Genes to Public Health. TLA : Lecture 18 Lecturer : Prof. Dr. Than Winn DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: Desired Learning Outcomes On completing this topic, you should be able to: 1. Understand the concept of Public health genetics. 2. Understand the concept of genetics epidemiology. 3. Understand the concepts of population genetics. Contents 1. Definition of public health genetics 2.
Definition of genetics epidemiology. 3. Definition of population genetics. 4. Why study population genetics. 5. How does genetic structure change. 6. Hardy-weinberg law. 7. Genetic counseling. DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. list the most common techniques used in genetics. 2. list the importance of molecular diagnostics in clinical practice. 3. briefly describe the basic principle, procedure and uses of the following techniques; a. Blotting techniques b. Polymerase Chain reaction c. Recombinant DNA technology d. DNA profiling Content: 1. Blotting Techniques.
a. Basic principle b. Methodology c. Clinical Application 2. Polymerase Chain reaction a. Basic principle b. Types c. Procedure d. Clinical Application 3. Recombinant DNA technology a. Basic principle b. Procedure c. Clinical Application 4. DNA profiling 8. B. LESSON PLANS: IMMUNOLOGY Topic : Organization of the Immune System TLA : Lecture 1 Lecturer : Assoc Prof Dr Haresh Kumar DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the general characteristics of innate immunity and adaptive immunity. 2. Describe the types of adaptive immune responses. 3.
Describe the cardinal features of adaptive immune responses. 4. Discuss the cellular components of adaptive immune responses. 5. Describe the phases of adaptive immune responses CONTENTS 1. General features of innate immunity and adaptive immunity. 2. Types of Adaptive Immunity -Humoral immunity -Cell-mediated immunity 3. Cardinal features of adaptive immune responses. -Specificity -Diversity -Memory -Specialization -Self-limitation -Non-reactivity to self 4. Cellular components of the adaptive immune responses. -Lymphocytes: B cells, T cells -Antigen-presenting cells -Effectors cells 5. Phases of adaptive immune responses.
-Recognition of antigens -Activation of lymphocytes -Effectors phase of immune response: elimination of antigens. -Homeostasis: decline of immune responses. Topic : Cells and Tissues of Immune System TLA : Lecture 2 Lecturer : Assoc Prof Dr Haresh Kumar DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Identify the cells involved in the immune system. 2. Describe the functions of the lymphoid tissues. 3. Explain the pathways and the mechanisms of lymphocyte recirculation and homing. CONTENTS 1. Cells involved in the immune system. -Lymphocytes -Antigen presenting cells 2.
Functions of the lymphoid tissues. -Bone marrow -Thymus -Lymph nodes and lymphatic system -Cutaneous immune system -Mucosal immune system 3. Pathways and mechanisms of lymphocyte recirculation and homing. -Recirculation of naive T lymphocytes through lymphoid organs -Migration of effectors and memory T cells to sites of inflammation -Recirculation of B lymphocytes. Topic : Antigen TLA : Lecture 3 Lecturer : Dr Selvi Palasubramaniam DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Define terminology related to antigens. 2. Explain the factors that influence immunogenicity.
3. Describe the different classes of antigens. 4Differentiate between adjuvant and carrier, giving examples of each. 5. Differentiate between T-dependent and T-independent antigens. 6. Differentiate between the antigenic determinants recognized by B cells and T cells CONTENTS 1. Definition: Antigen, immunogen, hapten, epitope or antigenic determinant, hapten-carrier conjugate, adjuvant and superantigen. 3. Factors influencing immunogenicity: a. Contribution of the immunogen. foreignness, size, chemical composition, physical form and degradability b.
Contribution of the biological system. genetic factors, age c. Methods of administration. -Dose, route, adjuvant 3. Types of antigens and examples: – T-dependent and T-independent antigens 4. Antigenic determinants Determinants recognized by B cells. Determinants recognized by T cells. 5. Superantigens: definition, functions and examples. 6. Adjuvant: definition, function and examples Topic : Antibody TLA : Lecture 4 Lecture : Dr Selvi Palasubramaniam DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Define terminology related to antibody: 2. Illustrate with help of diagrams, the structure of antibody molecule.
3. Explain the basis of immunoglobulin division into class, subclass, isotype, allotype and idiotype. 4. Explain the functions and distribution of 5 classes of antibodies in the body. 5. Explain the concept of antibody diversity. CONTENTS 1. Definition: affinity antibody (affinity, avidity), monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antibody. 2. Distribution of the human serum protein by electrophoresis. 3. Basic structure of antibody and its function (antigen-binding and biological activities). 4. Classes and subclasses of immunoglobulins (Ig): -Isotypes -Allotypes -Idiotypes 5. Concept of antibody diversity.
Topic : Complement System TLA : Lecture 5 Lecturer : Assoc Prof Dr Haresh Kumar DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Identify the components of the complement system and their receptors. 3. Describe with help of diagrams, the complement system activation pathways. 4. Explain the regulatory mechanisms of complement system activation. 5. Describe the biological effects of complement system activation. 6. Describe the involvement of complement systems in disease. CONTENTS 1. Components of complement systems and their receptors. 2. Complement activation pathways.
– Membrane-attack pathway /final common pathway. – Classical pathway. – Alternative pathway. 3. Regulatory mechanisms of complement system activation. 4. Biological effects of complement activation. 5. Involvement of complement system in disease. -Complement deficiencies -Pathological effects of normal complement system: e. g. Systemic vasculitis and immune complex glomerulonephritis Topic : Antigen- antibody Reactions in-vitro TLA : Fixed Learning Resource (FLR) Lecturer : Micro Staff DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the nature of antigen-antibody reactions.
2. Compare and contrast antibody affinity and avidity. 3. Describe the basis for the antibody specificity and cross reactivity. 4. Describe the principles of commonly used tests for antigen antibody reactions. 5. Describe the diagnostic application of antigen-antibody reactions. CONTENTS 1. Nature of the antigen antibody reactions. -Lock and key concept -Non-covalent bonds -Reversible 2. Affinity and avidity. 3. Specificity and cross-reactivity. 4. Factors affecting the measurement of antigen-antibody reactions. 5. Principles of commonly used tests for antigen antibody reactions. a. Agglutination tests.
-Agglutination /hemagglutination -Passive hemagglutination -Coomb’s test: Direct and Indirect Tests Hemagglutination Inhibition b. Precipitation tests -Radial immunodiffusion (Mancini) -Immunoelectrophoresis c. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) d. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) e. Tests for cell associated antigens -Immunofluorescence: direct and indirect test 6. Diagnostic application of the above tests. Topic : Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) TLA : Lecture 6 Lecturer : Dr Saad Musbah Alasil (SM) DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1.
Explain the genetic organization of the human MHC, HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen). 2. Describe the main structural features of class I and class II MHC gene products. 3. Explain the genetic basis of MHC polymorphism and its significance for the functioning of the immune system. 4. Describe the correlation between disease susceptibility and distinct MHC alleles. 5. List the methods of HLA-typing. CONTENTS 1. Genetic organization of the human MHC, HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) 2. Main structural features of class I and class II MHC gene products 3. Genetic basis of MHC polymorphism and its significance.
4. Correlation between disease susceptibility and distinct MHC alleles 5. Methods of HLA-typing. Topic : Immune Response 1 & 2 TLA Lectures 7 & 8 Lecturer : Dr Saad Musbah Alasil (SM) DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the mechanisms involved in cell-mediated immune response. 2Describe the role of cytokines in immune response. 3. Describe the mechanism involved humeral immune response. 4. Differentiate primary immune response and secondary immune response to T-dependent and T-independent antigens. CONTENTS 1. Antigen processing and presentation. 2.
Mechanism involved in cell-mediated immune response – Differentiation of CD4+ TH cells – The role of cytokines in the early phase of immune response – Cell-mediated cytotoxicity – the role of Tc, NK cells and LAK cells – The role of macrophages in the immune response 3. Mechanisms involved in humoral immune response – T cell – B cell interaction – Isotype switching – Affinity maturation – Development of immunological memory 4. Differences between primary and secondary response to a T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Topic : Hypersensitivity 1 & 2 TLA : Lecture 9 & 10 Lecturer : Dr Saad Musbah Alasil (SM) DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES.
By the end of the lecture, you should be able to: 1. Explain the Gell and Coombs’ classification of hypersensitivity reactions. 2. Describe the mechanism of damage in each type hypersensitivity reaction. 3. List the examples of diseases associated with hypersensitivity reactions and their clinical manifestations. 4. Describe briefly the laboratory diagnosis and outline of treatment of disease due to hypersensitivity reactions CONTENTS 1. Gell and Coombs’ classification -Types I, II, III: antibody – mediated reactions -Type IV: cell-mediated reaction 2. Mechanisms of damage in each type of hypersensitivity reaction.
3. Diseases associated with hypersensitivity reactions and their clinical manifestations. 4. Laboratory diagnosis and outline of treatment of disease due to hypersensitivity reactions. Topic : Autoimmune Disorders TLA : Lecture 11 Lecturer : Dr Saad Musbah Alasil (SM) DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the topic, you should be able to: 1. Describe the spectrum of autoimmune disorders. 2. Describe briefly the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. 3. List a few autoimmune diseases and their associated HLA. 4. Explain the role of serological tests in the detection of auto antibodies. 5.
Outline the treatment of autoimmune diseases. CONTENTS 1. Spectrum of autoimmune disorders: -Organ-specific: e. g. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis -Non-organ-specific/ systemic: e. g. Systemic lupus erythematosus 2. Immunopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. -Genetic and environmental factors -Autoimmunity through T helper bypass: modification of autoantigen, cross-reaction with B cell epitopes, molecular mimicry of T cell epitopes, idiotypic bypass and polyclonal activation. -Pathogenic effects of autoantibodies, immune complexes and the T cell-mediated hypersensitivity. 3. Autoimmune diseases and their associated HLA. 4.
Role of serological tests in the detection of autoantibodies. 5. Outline of treatment of autoimmune disorders. Topic : Immunodeficiency TLA : Lecture 12 Lecturer : Dr Saad Musbah Alasil (SM) DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. Explain the differences between primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. 2. List the types of primary immunodeficiency according to the component of the immune system that is deficient. 3. Describe the clinical manifestation which would make a strong suspicion of primary immunodeficiency. 4. Describe various conditions which may cause secondary immunodeficiency.
CONTENTS 1. Differences between primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. 2. Primary immunodeficiency diseases according to the components of the immune system: -B cell (antibody) deficiency -T cell deficiency -Combined B cell and T cell deficiency -Defective phagocytes -Complement deficiencies 3. Warning signs of primary immunodeficiency 4. Secondary immunodeficiency Topic : Transplantation and Tumor Immunology TLA : Lecture 13 Lecturer : Assoc Prof Dr Haresh Kumar DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOME On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. define the terms used in transplantation. 2.
list the indications of solid-organ transplantation. 3. describe the types and mechanism of graft rejection in solid-organ transplantation. 4. list the indications in stem cell transplant. 5. list the sources of stem cells. 6. describe the mechanism of graft-versus-host disease. 7. discuss the importance of tissue typing in transplantation. 8. discuss the role of immunosuppressive drugs in the prevention of graft rejection and graft versus host disease . 9. describe the different types of tumor antigens. 10. describe the immune responses to tumors. 11. describe the mechanisms of tumor evasion. 12.discuss the role immunotherapy in tumors.
CONTENTS 1. Definition: a. Autologous transplant b. Syngeneic transplant, c. Allogeneic transplant d. xenogeneic transplant 2. Indications of solid-organ transplantation 3. Types and mechanism of graft rejection a. Hyperacute rejection b. Acute rejection c. Chronic rejection 4. Indications stem cell transplant 5. Sources of stem cells 6. Mechanism of graft-versus-host disease. 7. Tissue typing in transplantation. 8. Role of immunosuppressive drugs in the prevention of graft rejection and graft versus host disease . 9. Types of tumor antigens a. Developmental proteins b.
Lineage-specific proteins c. Viral proteins d. Proteins produced through translocation. 10. Immune responses to tumors. 11. Tumor evasion mechanisms. 12. Immunotherapy in tumor. 8. C. Pharmacology: Topic : Protein synthesis inhibitors 1 Aminoglycosides & Tetracyclines TLA : LEC 1 Lecturer : Associate Professor Dr. Chitra Govindaraja / Dr Heethal Jaiprakash DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this topic, you should be able to: 1. explain antibiotics exert their protein synthesis inhibitors. Aminoglycosides 2. explain how aminoglycosides have selective toxicity. 3. explain the concept of concentration dependent killing.
4. describe “post-antibiotic” effect. 5. explain how bacterial resistance develops to aminoglycosides. 6. list the different drugs and their clinical uses. Tetracylines 1. explain the concept of protein synthesis inhibition at the ribosomal level as the mechanism of action. 2. explain what is meant by a “broad spectrum” antibiotic. 3. describe the pharmacokinetics of tetracyclines. 4. Enumerate the adverse effects and clinical uses. 5. Mention some contraindications to the use of tetracylines. CONTENTS Aminoglycosides 1. The common mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. 2. Synergistic action with penicillin. 3.
Mode of action – passive diffusion, oxygen-dependent transport, binding to 30S subunit of ribosome and inhibition of protein synthesis. 4. Mechanisms of resistance. 5. Pharmacokinetic features. 6. Toxicity- otototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. 7. Drug interactions 8. Indications for use in Gram–negative infections Tetracylines 1. Mechanism of drug action of tetracyclines 2. Pharmacokinetics of tetracylines 3. Clinical uses and adverse effects. Topic : Protein synthesis inhibitors 2 Macrolides & Chloramphenicol TLA : LEC 2 Lecturer : Dr. Sunil Kale DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of the lecture students should able to:
Macrolides and Chloramphenicol 1. List three macrolide antibiotics 2. Discuss the mechanism of action , pharmacokinetics, antibacterial spectrum and adverse effects of Macrolides 3. Explain the modes of drug resistance to Macrolides 4. Discuss the mechanism of action , clinical uses, pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of chloramphenicol 5. Discuss the mechanism of drug resistance of chloramphenicol CONTENTS 1. Macrolides, Chloramphenicol, 2. Mechanism of action of Macrolides and Chloramphenicol, 3.
Pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and adverse effects of Macrolides, Chloramphenicol 4. Modes of resistance of Macrolides and Chloramphenicol, Topic : Quinolones, folate antagonists & metronidazole TLA : LEC 3 & 4 Lecturer : Dr. Heethal Jaiprakash DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES On completion of this topic, you should be able to: Sulfonamides 1. describe the mechanism of action of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 2. explain the advantages of combining Sulfonamides with Trimethoprim 3. explain the pharmacokinetics of Sulfonamides and Trimethorpim 4. explain the mechanism of resistance to sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 5. list the adverse effects and drug interactions of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 6. list the antibacterial spectrum and uses of Sulfonamides and Trimethorpim.
Metronidazole 1. describe the mechanism of action of Metronidazole 2. list the adverse effects of Metronidazole 3. list the antibacterial spectrum and uses of Metronidazole Quinolones 1. classify quinolones 2. describe the mechanism of action of quinolones 3. describe the mechanism of resistance to quinolones 4. list the adverse effects of quinolones 5. list the antibacterial spectrum and uses of quinolones CONTENTS: Sulfonamides 1. Mechanism of action of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 2. Advantages of combining Sulfonamides with Trimethoprim 3. mechanism of resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim 4.
Adverse effects of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 5. Drug interactions Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim 6. Antibacterial spectrum and uses of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim Metronidazole 1. Mechanism of action of Metronidazole 2. Adverse effects of Metronidazole 3. Antibacterial spectrum and uses of Metronidazole Quinolones 1. Classification of quinolones 2. Mechanism of action of quinolones 3. Mechanism of resistance to quinolones 4. Adverse effects of quinolones 5. Antibacterial spectrum and uses of quinolones Topic 4 : Immunomodulators TLA : LEC 5 & 6 Lecturer : Dr. Ameeta Patel DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES.