Febronectin protein is also important in rheumatoid and osteoarthitis. P component has been found to be present in amyold deposits normal serum a well as normal tissues in relation to elastic fibers. Its pathological role in the inflammatory synovitis was investigated. P component is important since it categorizes the nature of the pathological reaction as well as is typically in biopsy specimens that show the development of chronic fibrosis. In understanding the pathological interactions of P component helps in a elucidating why some synovial reactions remain inflammatory and other progress to chronic fibrosis (Avers, 1989)
Fibronectin is also involved in a number of cellular processes, which also include tissue repair, blood clotting, and embryogenesis as well as cell adhesion. (Avers, 19890 Hypothesis Statement The study of Fibronectin shows a lot of importance, which must be carefully investigated. It has shown how possible it is to deal with arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also it has shown the possibility of dealing with rheumatoid. It gives a clear message of significance and room for further studies. It shows how possible it is to deal with other diseases and also the possibility of dealing with any complicated cases in the field of science (Schore, 1994)
Materials and Methods Case Selection A retrospective review of the surgical pathology files of the California College of Primates Department of pathology revealed 54 cases of HCC with available paraffin block. All specimens were from partial hepatectomy surgeries of rats performed between 1991 and 2001. The histological sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and all cases were retrospectively reviewed by one student of pathology to confirm the diagnosis of HCC. As for immunohistochemistry a representative block was chosen which contained tumor and adjacent noneoplastic liver
Immunohistochemistry The whole process of immunostaining was performed at room temperature as well as carried out on DAKO. The reagents were used as supplied in the Envision plus Detection kit (DAKO). In this case a polyclonal rabbit anti – human fibronectin antibody was used (A0245, DAKO) at dilution of 1: 1200. Also a known positive control section was included in each run to ensure proper staining. Paraffin sections were cut in very small pieces, deparaffinized and placed in 200ml of DAKO at a PH of 6. 0 then the buffer was brought to a temperature of 100degrees centigrade for twenty minutes.
The sections were then removed and were allowed to cool in buffer for twenty minutes and were then rinsed thoroughly in deionized water. The sections were then quenched with 3% H2O2 for 5 minutes and then incubated with the primary antibody for 30 minutes. Therefore the sections were incubated in DAKO for 30 minutes. Sections were then incubated in a freshly prepared mixture of diaminobenzidine and buffer substrate solution for 5minutes. Finally, the sections were counterstained with hematoxylin and blued in Richard Allen Bluing Reagent.
Then negative controls were put in place in each immunostain run. Fibronectin proteins can be divided into soluble plasma fibronectin and insoluble cellular fibronectin. Cellular fibronectin is normally important in scar formation in the dermis as well as in wound healing and also play a role in scarrying that characterizes liver cirrhosis. Whereas plasma fibronectin is proved primarily in hepatocytes and plays a crucial role in clot formation, opsonization of circulating callagenous degradation products as well as opsonization of bacteria.
The antibody which was used in the study was raised against a plasma derived immingle however it appears to recognize both cellular as well as forms of fibronectin based on the staying of non hepatocyte cell type which are known to produce cellular fibronectin but are not known to produce plasma fibronectin In this study fibronectin protection showed abnormal expression in 90% of the non fibrolamellar HCC such that there was increased cytoplasm staying as well as an abnormal membranous staining which compared with adjacent non – neoplastic liver.
Over expression of fibronectin has also been reported in hepatoblastomas. This abnormal expression of fibronectin protein in HCC may be a show of deregulation of this crucial cell cycle control unit. Furthermore it shows that fibronectin either regulates, or is regulated by a number of important cell cycle protein, which one thought to play a role in HCC pathogenesis including cyclin D1. This abnormal fibronectin expression may also lead to abnormal cell – to – cell or cell-to-extra cellular matrix, which contributes to tumor development.
Contrally to the classic HCC the fibrolamellar variants did not manifest fibronectin expression though the number of cases in this study are too small to draw any firm conclusions. Increased mRNA and abnormal splice variants in HCC have been reported by a number of authors. Putting such cases together, the results from our study concentrate abnormal expression of fibronectin in HCC at the mRNA and protein levels The over expression of fibronectin seen in this study helps to add to our understanding of HCC tumor biology but it also may have implication for routine surgical pathology diagnostics.
Although this possibility was not discussed in this study, since all the cases were typical HCCs and presented no diagnostic dilemmas the high percentage of these cases it may be a useful antibody to include in further study that develop immunization parties to evaluate difficult tumors of the liver Finally in addition to in crucial role in the extra cellular matrix, fibronectin shows abnormal cytoplasmic as well as of staining of membrane in majority of HCCs, with 90% of the cases in this study showing abnormal protein expression.
In contrast the few fibro lamellar carcinomas included this study failed to manifest abnormal fibronectin expression in the tumor cells. This shows there is more that fibronectin protects that have in store for researchers so more funds should be invested in this important area of biology. In every study firm conclusions must be drawn. This case of study does not have firm conclusions due to the few cases used, all the same if enough funds can be available a lot can be done, and humanity sends to benefit a lot in this interesting field.
The abnormal over expression of fibronectin shows that if fibronectin is properly studied there is still more to be learnt. Therefore ore still needs to be done. If there could be no abnormal over expression of fibronectin then the whole case of study would have taken a completely different dimension and the case would not have been as interesting as it is now. If in any case this over expression of fibronectin can lead us in discovery of many other diseases, especially their causes then we would be better placed as scientists, and technology will betaking us to more interesting places.
But this is possible, the major hurdle have been overcame, we only need to be more responsible and do something meaningful about the whole study . We should inject more sense into what we do not understand properly. Our collective responsibility will take us in the right direction. Budget $3,000 Reference Averss, J C (1989) process and Parten in Evolution, Oxford University Press. New York Gregory, L (1998). The Oxford Companion to the Mind; Oxford University Press; New York
Markos, A (2002) Readers of the Book of Life; Contextualizing Development Evolutionary Biology Oxford University Press. New York Pavancer, S (2000) Symbosis: An introduction to Biological Association. Oxford University Press New York Peters , J. T(1996) Alcohol Misuse ; A Eurpean Perspective ; Harward Academic. London Renbergon (1996) life itself ; Exploring The Real of the living Cell; Oxford University press. New Yord Schore, A (1994). Aflect Regulation and the origin of the self. The Neurobiology of Emotional Development Laurence Erlbaum Associates. London.