Drugs in sports Morphine

A drug is any chemical substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function. In pharmacology, a drug is defined as “a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being. “

Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. COMPARISON OF MEDICINE AND POISON Medicine Medicine is the art and science of healing. It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore human health by the prevention and treatment of illness.

Contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research, and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form of therapy. The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing. Though medical technology and clinical expertise are pivotal to contemporary medicine, successful face-to-face relief of actual suffering continues to require the application of ordinary human feeling and compassion, known in English as “bedside manner. “

Poison In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. Legally and in hazardous chemical labeling, poisons are especially toxic substances; less toxic substances are labeled “harmful”, “irritant”, or not labeled at all. In medicine (particularly veterinary) and in zoology, a poison is often distinguished from a toxin and a venom.

Toxins are poisons produced via some biological function in nature, and venoms are usually defined as biologic toxins that are injected by a bite or sting to cause their effect, while other poisons are generally defined as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut. FORMS OF DRUGS 1. Natural Drugs – natural plant leaves, flowering tops, resin, opium and marijuana. 2. Synthetic/ Artificial Drugs – produced by clandestine laboratories which include those drugs that are controlled by law because they are used in medical practice.

Drugs are used in medicines in order to: relieve pain prevent and correct deficiencies give protection against diseases detect diseases fight infection restore and maintain normal body functions induce sleep reduce nervous tensions decrease or increase appetite alter moods modify behavior facilitate learning DRUG USE, MISUSE AND ABUSE PRESCRIPTIVE AND OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS (OTC) 1. DRUG USE Drugs – relatively inert substance used by people Safe to use when they are properly prescribed by a physician When properly used, they relieve pain and suffering, cure diseases, and even save lives.

2. DRUG MISUSE Misuse – means taking too little or too much of a medicine at one time It can also mean taking the medicine too often, or taking the medicine for longer or shorter time than recommended Drug misuse – incorrect use of medicine which is health reason Occurs because a person lacks information or makes decisions based on false information Effects of drug misuse: 1. 2. Delay in proper medical attention 3. Overdose or under dose 4. Damage to body structure or function 5. Serious mental disorder 6.

Death 3. DRUG ABUSE Drug abuse – the use of any drug seriously interferes with the health, economic status or social functioning of the user and affect others because of his/her behavior. Taking dangerous drugs may affect: 1. 2. personality 3. social status in community 4. One’s social role in the community GENERAL EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE 1. 2. Physical effects Malnutrition Skin infections and Skin rashes 3. Psychological effects Development of psychosis and depression Irritability rebellious attitude.

Withdrawal forgetfulness Deterioration of personality Loss of drive and ambition Laziness and lethargy Loss of interest to study Boredom and restlessness accident prone 4. Social effects Deterioration of interpersonal relationship and development of conflict Leads to crime Social mal-adjustment, loss of desire to work, study and participate in activities or to face challenges 5. 6. Mental effects Adverse effect on the central nervous system Impairment of mental function 7. Economic effects Inability to hold a stable job.

Dependence on family resources ALTERNATIVES TO DRUG ABUSE 1. 2. Physical Activity 3. Relaxation Response 4. Positive Activities 5. Having a healthy lifestyle PRESCRIPTIVE DRUGS Prescriptive drugs – These are drugs requiring written authorization from a doctor in order to allow a purchase. 4. OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS (OTC) These are non-prescription medicines which may be purchased from any pharmacy or drugstore without written authorization from a doctor. It is used to treat minor and short term illnesses. What is doping?

Doping is the habit of using chemical substances such as drugs, hormones or practising non-natural methods to enhance athletic performance The use of drugs as medicine to alleviate pain, as a course of therapy or as treatment is also considered doping if the effect of that drug causes the performance of the athlete to be superior to the regular level Why do athletes use drugs? Build mass and strength of muscles and/or bones To stimulate the body Increase delivery of oxygen to exercising tissues To mask pain To relax or calm nerves Hide use of other drugs Other reasons Peer pressure Thrill seekers.

Need to achieve success Increase self esteem To reduce weight BUILD MASS AND STRENGTH 1. STEROID Anabolic- Androgenic Steroids Testosterone: Anabolic – promotes muscle building. Androgenic effects – responsible for male traits (e. g. facial hair, deep voice) Effects Men: Development of breasts Baldness Shrinking of testicles Infertility/reduce sperm count Women: Deepen voice Enlarged clitoris Increased body hair Baldness Both may develop: Severe acne Liver abnormalities Increased low- density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol Decreased high- density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol Aggressive behaviors.

Psychiatric disorders, such as depression Drug dependence Infections or diseases such as HIV or hepatitis if the drug is injected Inhibited growth and development, and risk of future health problems if you’re a teenager Irritability, violent behavior, depression, mania, psychosis, and some cases of suicide (psychological effect. ) 2. Human Growth Hormone (HGH) – Naturally occurring protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland and is important for normal human growth and development, especially in children and teenagers. Low hGH levels in children and teenagers result in dwarfism.

(Excessive hGH levels increase muscle mass by stimulating protein synthesis, strengthen bones by stimulating bone growth and reduce body fat by stimulating the breakdown of the fat cells. Use of hGH has become increasingly popular because it is difficult to detect. Side effects include: Gigantism is the effect of overproduction of HGH while dwarfism or midgetism is the result in the underproduction of HGH. Overgrowth of hand, feet and face (acromegaly) because of the increased muscle and bone development in these parts. Can cause acromegaly, atrophy and heart problems.

Enlarged internal organs, especially heart, kidneys, tongue and liver Insulin-like growth Factor (IGF-1) IGH-1, which is also called somatomedin-C, is a naturally occurring protein that helps in the action of hGH. It also stimulates protein synthesis and reduces fats. Excessive IGF-1 would increase muscle and bone mass as hGH does. Side effects include low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and other side effects to hGH Insulin – is a natural protein hormone produced by the pancreas, which is important for metabolism of sugars, starches, fats and proteins. It is necessary for the treatment juvenile (type 1) diabetes.

In athletes, insulin combined with anabolic steroids or hGH could increase muscle mass by stimulating protein synthesis. Side effects are mainly low blood sugar associated with shaking, nausea and weakness, but excessive hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death. 3. Creatine – are athletic aids used to increase high-intensity athletic performance. Though researchers have known of the use of creatine as an energy source by skeletal muscles since the beginning of the 20th century, they were popularized as a performance-enhancing supplement in 1992 Benefits:

Helps muscles make and circulate Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Delaying muscle fatigue Risks: Stomach cramps Muscle cramps Nausea Diarrhea Weight gain Dehaydration High-dose may potentially damage the: Kidney liver Androstenedione Andro- is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries and testes – converted to testosterone (men) – converted to estradiol (produced by the ovaries and used in treating estrogen deficiency) Risks: Men Acne Diminished sperm production Shrinking of the testicles Enlargement of the breasts Women Acne Masculinization (e. g. deeper voice, male pattern baldness).

Both Decrease HDL cholesterol which puts you at greater risk of heart attack and stroke. 4. Beta 2 agonist When inhaled, beta-2 agonists relax the muscle in the airways of asthma patients by mimicking the actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine, substances that are secreted by sympathetic nerves. However when injected into the bloodstream, these drugs can build muscle mass (anabolic effect) and reduce body fat (catabolic effects). The anabolic effect appears to directly affect building proteins in the muscles, which is independent of nervous or cardiovascular effects.

Some examples of beta-2 agonists include: Clenbuterol Tertbutaline Salbutamol Fenoterol Bamtuterol Some of these substances are permitted in inhaler forms with written medical consent. The major side effects include: Nausea, headaches and dizziness because these substances constrict blood vessels in the brain Muscle cramps because they constrict blood vessels in muscles Rapid heart beats or flutters because they stimulate heart rate 5. Peptide Hormones a. Chemically produced hormones b. Increase strength and endurance c.

Increase muscle size DRUGS THAT INCREASES DELIVERY OF OXYGEN 1. Erythropoietin – secreted by the kidney Eryhtropoeitin (EPO) – a natural hormone which stimulates the red bone marrow to produe more red blood cells. It can also be synthesized by making artificial EPO hormone. 2. Blood doping – process of increasing blood volume by injecting the athletes’ own blood or other person’s blood to the general circulation before the game. Blood doping may cause certain viral and bacterial infections if the process is not done well.

An athlete who infuses his own blood may also cause infections or cardiovascular problems because of the increased blood volume (high blood pressure, bloob clots, heart failure and stroke). An athlete who uses someone else’s blood runs the risk of acquiring viral infections such as HIV/AIDS DRUGS THAT HIDE OTHER DRUGS 1. Diuretics – This group is most commonly used by those athletes who have to “make weight” prior to competition (e. g. Boxers). Diuretics increase urine production and can make an athlete susceptible to dehydration.

NOTE: Diuretics are sometimes used by athletes to dilute their urine in an attempt to make the use and avoid detection, of anabolic steroids. Caffeine Benefits: Weight loss; helping athletes to compete in a lighter weight class Pass drug tests by diluting their urine Risks: Acetazolamide (Diamox) Spironolactone (Aldactone) Furosemide (Lasix) Acetazolamide (Diamox) GENERIC NAME: ACETAZOLAMIDE – ORAL (uh-seet-uh-ZOHL-uh-mide) BRAND NAME(S): Diamox USES: This medication is used for certain seizure disorders, glaucoma or altitude sickness. HOW TO USE: This medication may be taken with food or milk to reduce stomach upset.

Your dosage depends on your medical condition and response to this drug. Take exactly as directed by your doctor. This drug may reduce the potassium levels in your blood. A potassium supplement may be prescribed by your doctor. Consult your doctor about this. SIDE EFFECTS: This drug may cause dizziness and lightheadedness especially during the first few days as your body adjusts to it. Rise slowly from a seated or lying position. Blurred vision, loss of appetite, itching, stomach upset, headache and weakness may also occur. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor.

Notify your doctor if you develop: muscle cramps or pain, sore throat, skin rash, unusual bleeding or bruising, tingling of the hands or feet. In the unlikely event you have an allergic reaction to this drug, seek immediate medical attention. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include: rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, trouble breathing. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Spironolactone (Aldactone) Medical Author: Omudhome Ogbru, Pharm. D. Medical Editor: Jay Marks, M. D. GENERIC NAME: spironolactone BRAND NAME: Aldactone.

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: One of the main functions of the kidneys is to retain salt (sodium chloride) and water in the body. In patients with heart failure and cirrhosis, increased levels of a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, called aldosterone, causes salt and fluid to be retained by the kidneys. (At the same time, it also causes the kidneys to eliminate potassium. ) The body becomes overloaded with salt and water, and this worsens the heart failure. Spironolactone inhibits the action of aldosterone thereby causing the kidneys to excrete salt and fluid in the urine while retaining potassium.

Therefore, spironolactone is classified as a potassium-sparing diuretic, a drug that promotes the output of urine (diuretic) while allowing the kidneys to hold onto potassium. The FDA approved spironolactone in October 1985 GENERIC NAME: furosemide BRAND NAME: Lasix DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Furosemide is a potent diuretic (water pill) that is used to eliminate water and salt from the body. In the kidneys, salt (composed of sodium and chloride), water, and other small molecules normally are filtered out of the blood and into the tubules of the kidney. The filtered fluid ultimately becomes urine.

Most of the sodium, chloride and water that is filtered out of the blood is reabsorbed into the blood before the filtered fluid becomes urine and is eliminated from the body. Furosemide works by blocking the absorption of sodium, chloride, and water from the filtered fluid in the kidney tubules, causing a profound increase in the output of urine (diuresis). The onset of action after oral administration is within one hour, and the diuresis lasts about 6-8 hours. The onset of action after injection is five minutes and the duration of diuresis is two hours.

The diuretic effect of furosemide can cause depletion of sodium, chloride, body water and other minerals. Therefore, careful medical supervision is necessary during treatment. The FDA approved furosemide in July 1982. Weight loss; helping athletes to compete in a lighter weight class Pass drug tests by diluting their urine Potassium deficiency Heart arrhythmias Drop in blood pressure Death 2. Plasma expanders – are substances that are used to increase the fluid component of the blood. They are used to treat victims of shock, trauma and surgery.

Athletes can use these substances to dilute the concentration of banned substances (EPO) in their blood. Most side effects include moderate to severe allergic reactions. a drug taken by athletes to increase the volume of the plasma which allow the red blood cells to move faster and deliver oxygen to the body muscles more sufficiently. DRUGS TO MASK PAIN 1. Narcotics – are used to treat pain and include substances such as morphine, methadone and heroin. Narcotics are highly addictive, and the “high” associated with their use can impair mental abilities (judgment, balance and concentration).

Also, athletes who continue to compete with an injury run the risk of further damage or complications. Stimulants – Drugs that directly activate vital body functions such as those of the central nervous system. In contrast to depressant drugs, stimulant drugs speed up the functions of the central nervous system Caffeine and amphetamines (Dexedrine, Adderall) Cold remedies, which often contain the stimulants ephedrine or pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (Sudafed, Advil Allergy Sinus) Street Drugs (Cocaine and methamphetamine) Strong stimulant drugs include:

amphetamines and methamphetamines: also known as ‘speed’, ‘ice’ and ‘crystal meth’ cocaine: also known as ‘coke’ and ‘snow’ slimming tablets: e. g. Duromine and Tenuate dexamphetamine: prescribed to treat attention-deficit disorder in children and narcolepsy, which is an uncontrollable urge to fall asleep.

Benefits: Boost physical performance Promote aggressiveness on the field Risks: Nervousness and irritability make it hard to concentrate on the game Insomnia can prevent an athlete from getting needed sleep Athletes may become psychologically addicted or develop a tolerance so that they need greater amounts to achieve the desired effect Heart palpitations Heart rhythm abnormalities Weight loss Tremors.

Mild hypertension Hallucinations Convulsions Heart attack and other circulatory problems Performances in many areas that are hampered: Academics Athletics Music or dramatic arts Decision making in everyday situations Driving any kind of vehicles Operating equipment or tools Risk of drug-related problems is increased: Legal problems Addiction Engaging in risky sexual behaviors that may spread diseases Athletic injuries Development of life skills is impaired: Stress management.

Conflict resolution Problem solving Goal setting Physical, emotional, social and spiritual development is damaged. Normal psychological development Appropriate moral and spiritual development Ability to solve daily problems and cope with stress Ability to interact and get along with others The game will be affected.

Team spirit will suffer. Lack of togetherness Lack of concentration Lack of commitment Lack of energy Lack of trust General results/outcome: irreversible negative side effects on the body or mind of athletes and some have resulted in coma and death discourages fair sportsmanship disregards the rules for the field brings false glory to the athletes damaging to the spirit and progress of sports honest hard-working athletes will also be associated with the doping stigma Leaves impression that normal hard training is not sufficient and not good enough to win the game MAJOR DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS (DRUG ABUSE).

1. STIMULANTS speed up the processes of the CNS and elevate alertness, talkativeness, anxiety, euphoria, excitability, exaggeration of reflexes, repetitive speech (nagging) and other unusual behaviors. Reduce fatigue

Increase competitiveness and hostility STIMULANTS AS MEDICINES Treat narcolepsy (a disease in which the patient is subject to irresistible bouts of sleep, and to counteract the drowsiness caused by sedatives) Also treat ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) TYPES OF STIMULANTS.

1. AMPHETAMINES (technical term: Amfetamines) white crosses, greenies, speed, footballs, uppers, pep pills, whites, dexies, hearts, wake-ups, beans, bennies, roses, oranges, Black bird, Black Beauties, Black Cadillacs, crystals, crank, crink, amped, cris, cristian, bombidos, copilots, bottles, jugs, b-bomb, turn abouts, chicken powder, lightning, nuggets, dynamites, splash, sparkle plenties, cross tops, peaches, marathons, cross-roads, bumble bees, thrusters, meth.

Can be in the form of capsule, pill, liquid, powder, tablet, lozenge amphetamines are usually consumed by students cramming for exams, housewives trying to get through the day without collapsing from exhaustion, and the businesswomen who have tossed and turned all night in a strange hotel bedroom and need to be alert for a conference the next morning.

Short-Term Effects: Enhanced mood and body movement Increased wakefulness, physical activity Increased respiration Euphoria Insomnia Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Reduced appetite Cardiovascular collapse, death Dilated pupils Long-Term Effects: Damage to brain cells containing serotonin Over time, reduced level of dopamine resulting in Parkinson’s-like symptoms Weight loss Confusion Tremors Convulsion Paranoia Hallucinations Damage to nerve cells, causing strokes Cardiovascular collapse, death Effects from Withdrawal:

Irritability Anxiety Paranoia Aggressiveness Fatigue and long periods of sleep Depression Behaviors resulting from amphetamine intoxication such as withdrawal from others, experiencing hallucinations, paranoia, delirium perhaps occurring with violence and stereotyped behaviors such as repeatedly assembling and dissembling electronic equipment may resemble symptoms of schizophrenia. Sources: National Institutes of Health Morrison, James (1995) DSM Made Easy: The Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis 2.

AMPHETAMINE-LIKE STIMULANTS several drugs that are chemically unrelated to the amphetamines produce very similar effects on the body. They are also equally amenable to abuse. Among them are methylphenidate (Ritalin; treatment for narcolepsy and ADHD; C14H19NO2) and phenmetrazine (Preludin; usually used as diet pill). Amphetamines and an amphetamine-like drug (Ritalin) may be used to treat some hyperactive children who are extremely excitable and easily distracted. For reasons that are imperfectly understood, the drug calms these children instead of stimulating them.

3. COCAINE (C17H21NO4) from the leaves of coca bush, Erythroxylon coca, cocaine in its crystalline form is a white powder that looks like moth flakes. Its effect is only for short time and depends on the size of the dose. The use of cocaine as a legal anesthetic need not lead to addiction. It has been used particularly in surgical operations on the mouth, eyes and throat because it can constrict blood vessels and because it is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membranes.

Also known as coke, Cecil, coconut, Big C, Corrine, crack, flake, Bernice, jam, sniff, bernies, lady snow, snow, rock, white, frisky powder, incentive, dream, girl, gold dust, star dust, paradise, Carry Nation, heaven dust, nose candy, uptown, toot. Can be in the form of white powder; sniffed or snorted, injected Effects The effects on individuals vary and include: feelings of euphoria increased sexual desire loss of appetite paranoia, delusion, and violent behavior nausea and headaches kidney failure high blood pressure increased heart rate, irregular heart beat, and increased risk of heart attack respiratory failure

severe vomiting or diarrhea SPEEDBALL A combination of cocaine and heroin that is injected. The shot yields a sudden rush of sensation in the genitals or lower abdomen (from the cocaine) followed by the sense of euphoria (from the heroin). 4. Caffeine Stimulates the CNS, a diuretic and present in beer, tea (ice, green, hot). Effects of Stimulants Nervousness Shaking Irregular heartbeats High blood pressure Convulsion Sudden death 2. Depressants Act as sedatives on the CNS Also act as hypnotic or sleep-inducing agents TYPES OF DEPRESSANTS 1. BARBITURATES.

Downers, block busters, reds, barbs, blues, blue birds, blue devils, blue heaven, blue bullets, blue dots, candies, softballs, seccies, seggies, Christmas trees, Mexican Reds, green dragons, yellow jackets, yellow bullets, goof balls, devils, nebbies, nimbies, peanuts, pink lady, phennies Can be in the form of sleeping pills, capsules, tablets and liquid; injected Prescribed to overcome insomnia, reduce high blood pressure, alleviate anxiety, treat mental disorders, and sedate patients both before and after surgery. Barbs can also help to bring epileptic and other convulsions under control.

2. TRANQUILIZERS Act selectively on the brain and CNS. These drugs are similar to barbs in many ways, including their sedative or calming effect TYPES OF TRANQUILIZERS MAJOR Neuroleptics – such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine are useful in the treatment of mental disorders. These drugs lead to virtually NO addiction or dependence even in a long-term therapy. MINOR Meprobamate (Miltown), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and diazepam (Valium) – in contrast to neuroleptics, these drugs are highly addictive.

There are also cases wherein in drug abusers take both stimulants and depressants (adik?) at the same time and the effect is apparently the break down of body systems. 3. NARCOTICS Drugs that relieve pain and induce sleep by depressing the CNS.

Narcotics and Depressants are somehow similar because of their effects in the body such as depression and dormancy. Narcotics are also known as opioids. OPIUM is called as the “mother of narcotics” because it is the source of the opium derivatives such as heroin and morphine and codeine is a derivative of morphine. Alkaloids – technical term for opium derivatives; include codeine TYPES OF NARCOTICS 1. OPIUM.

From the gummy resin produced by the seedpods of the plant opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It has narcotic effects when eaten or smoked 2. MORPHINE Named after Morpheus, the Roman god of dreams, is the chemical substance in opium that gives it sedative and analgesic properties. Morphine can relieve almost any kind of pain. Also an aphrodisiac Widely used painkiller and is often used after surgery or for cancer cases. Small dose does relieve pain, larger doses induce sleep. MORPHINE OVERDOSE Can lead to respiratory depression that is sometimes severe enough to cause coma and death. Naloxene (Narcan)- antidote for morphine overdose.

3. CODEINE From the Greek word kodeia, meaning “poppyhead”, codeine is a mild pain reliever that can be produced from gum opium or through the conversion from morphine. Its effect peaks in 30-60 minutes; they disappear in three to four hours. a. k. a schoolboy in the streets and is milder than either morphine or heroin, and is an ingredient in some popular nonprescription cough syrups. 4. HEROIN Originally thought to be non-addictive, heroin was for a time used as a cure for opium and morphine addiction. It was then found to be more addictive than either of those drugs. Heroin, semi-synthetic opium, is derived from morphine.

Heroin is smoked, inhaled, or injected by the abuser. Its effect, when overdosed, will not be painkillers but pain givers. a. k. a. horse, junk, H, Harry, scat, smack, scag, stuff, cat, chick, big H, thing, Mexican mud, doojee, duji, dogie, crap, brown sugar, Chinese red, brother Can be in the form of powder which can be sniffed or injected. What are its short-term effects? The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a few hours. After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria (“rush”) accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities.

Following this initial euphoria, the user goes “on the nod,” an alternately wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system. Other effects included slowed and slurred speech, slow gait, constricted pupils, droopy eyelids, impaired night vision, vomiting, constipation. What are its long-term effects? Long-term effects of heroin appear after repeated use for some period of time. Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulites, and liver disease.

Pulmonary complications, including various types of pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as well as from heroin’s depressing effects on respiration. In addition to the effects of the drug itself, street heroin may have additives that do not really dissolve and result in clogging the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. This can cause infection or even death of small patches of cells in vital organs. With regular heroin use, tolerance develops. This means the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same intensity or effect. 4. HALLUCINOGENS.

Cause hallucinations, experience of “mixing of the senses“ – hearing colors and seeing sounds, illusions, and distorted perceptions. Nausea can be a side effect experienced with some hallucinogens. TYPES OF HALLUCINOGENS 1. LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) With names such as California, sunshine, acid, purple haze and others, LSD reached its peak in popularity in 1960s, but now, it can only be used in supervised experiments. Hallucinating agents which is colorless, tasteless and a semisynthetic acid and are said to be the most potent hallucinogen. The “trip” begins about an hour after the drug is taken. Vision is affected the most profoundly.

Colors become more beautiful; those in a painting may seem to merge and stream. Flat objects become 3-D. Mind will be filled up with brilliant sights and sensations. a. k. a acid, sugar, cubes, big D, ghost, hawk-25, beast, coffee, blue heaven, California sunshine, orange mushrooms, mellow yellows, chocolate chips, window panes, paper acid, trips, purple haze HOW ABOUT IF THE TRIP BECOMES BAD? Another trip may bring anxiety, panic, fear, and depression verging on depair which is “bad. ” Bad tripped users have ended in psychiatric wards, with the tripper sufferin from a severe mental disorder, a “psychosis.

” ADDICTIVE ASPECTS When abused, LSD produces a spectacular high that daily ingestion is virtually out of the question (it’s already part of the norm for the user). Heavy users develop tolerance for LSD but disappears after a few days of abstinence. 2. MESCALINE Is the active ingredient of peyote, a Mexican cactus that has been used by American Indians for centuries to achieve mystical states in religious ceremonies. Users consume cactus “buttons” either ground up or whole. It can either be powder or liquid and can be synthesized in a laboratory.

Less potent than LSD a. k. a.mesc, beans, buttons, cactus, moon, peyote, mescal, mescal buttons Can be in the form of tablet and capsule 3. PSILOCYBIN(C13HN2O3P2) and PSILOCIN (C12H16N2O) Active hallucinogenic ingredients in the Aztec mushroom Psilocybe mexicana. Crystalline in form Psilocybin is usually referred to as being the main psychoactive compund in magic mushrooms – however, it does not produce psychedelic effects and is merely dephosphorylated into psilocin when consumed. Therefore, it is a prodrug. Psilocin is responsible for most psychoactive effects in the majority of psychoactive mushroom species.

It acts by interaction with neurotransmitter receptors on nerve cells in the brain where it mimicks the action of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine). Specifically, psilocin is a post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor agonist. 4. Phencyclidine Hydrochloride (PCP) First developed in 1959 as an anesthetic and its pure form is readily soluble in water or alcohol. Adulterant in many drug mixtures – mescaline, psilocybin or LSD. PCP reportedly has as many or more undesirable effects as positive ones, among them are: forgetfulness, loss of behavior control, feelings of depersonalization, paranoid episodes, hallucinations and suicidal impulses.

a. k. a. angel dust, hog, crystal, cyclone, PeaCe, Pill, bad grass, super grass, elephant, killer weed (when added to marijuana cigarettes, “to dust a joint”), DOA (dead on arrival) 5. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Called the “businessman’s high” because its effect may last only 40 – 50 minutes Other than hallucinogen, it can also cause exhilaration. 6. DOM or STP Synthetic compound originally developed by the Dow Chemical Company for possible use in the treatment of mental disorders. The drug was never released.

Manufactured illicitly, it was given the name STP for Serenity, Tranquility, Peace (very ironic). 7. Causes vivid hallucinations and the effects last as long as LSD. 5. MARIJUANA (CANNABINOIDS) A Mexican-Spanish word originally used to refer to a poor grade of tobacco. common name for a drug made from the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – group of substances found in the resins of C. sativa containing the active principles of the drug.

A drug is any chemical substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function. In pharmacology, a drug is defined as “a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease …

1. A number of drugs have been used for centuries, either as remedies or in religious ceremonies. Describe how three of these drugs were used by ancient civilization and how they are used today. Include in your answer the improvements …

?Definition of Drugs and Drug Abuse; Where We Stand Today. Drugs are substances that people use to enhance their performance in sports, physical activities and just mainly to perform daily activities. Mainly, there is probably no precise definition of drugs, …


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