Does Cellphone Use Cause Cancer

Nowadays owning a cell phone has become a common commodity but can this seemingly harmless device be the cause of cancer? Cell phones emit radio frequency (RF) energy a type of electromagnetic energy that could be biologically damaging to the body. However some research suggests that the RF energy is a low frequency energy that is incapable of causing detrimental effects to the cells in the body. Some studies do not demonstrate a strong causal relation between RF exposure from cell phones and negative health effects. Through the evaluation of different scientific experiments this paper will explore whether or not cell phone use causes cancer.

There is evidence that suggests that RF energy can cause malignant tumors by affecting the glial cells because of the close contact between the cellphone and the cranial area. As well RF can cause meningiomas through the damage in the meninges; the membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. A study was performed found that the use of mobile phones caused an increase in the risk of malignant brain tumors. 1 Another study done by the University Hospital in Sweden found a strong causal relationship between cell phone use and increased risk in malignant brain tumors as well as neck tumors.

2 When the risk of glioma in mobile phone users was tested an experiment tried to focus on the part of the brain that was exposed to RF fields the most, which was between the mouth and the ear. The study found that the proportion of gliomas in mobile users was 28% versus non users which was 14%. Therefore there is a higher risk of brain tumors for frequent cell phone users. 3 Some studies also suggest that exposure to RF emitted from cell phones can cause structural damage to the cells in the human body which can in turn lead to the formation of cancer.

An experiment performed on rats found that the areas of the rats brains that were exposed to RF had darker, shrunken neurons in the hippocampal area. 4 The study found a significant increase in the prevalence of darker neurons in correlation with an increased electromagnetic field. 5 Electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency can also cause damage to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and their disrepair in stem cells leads to the formation of cancer. One study looked at the tumor suppressor binding protein TP53 which are formed at the site of the DSB location.

They found that the waves emitted from cell phones inhibit the formation of this protein in the primary fibroblasts or lymphocytes and mesenchymal stem cells of humans leading to cancer. 6 Furthermore cell phone waves can lead to the leakage of albumin in the brain through the blood-brain barrier, providing a pathway for cancer chemicals, which is linked to the damage to neurons in parts of the brain like the cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. 5 Cell phone radiation can lead to cancer by causing stress to the cells in the body which in turn give off heat shock proteins (HSP).

The activation of the HSP has adverse effects on the normal regulation of cells which can cause cancer. One study proved that an increase in RF waves causes a decrease in the HSP levels and results in a decrease in cytoprotection which increases the chances of cancer. 7 Although there is strong evidence that cell phone use does cause cancer all the aforementioned information can be refuted, for example it is possible that the RF energy emitted from a cell phone has too low a frequency to cause meningiomas.

A collaborative study investigated meningioma cases and found that the risk of meningioma was lower among people who use cell phones regularly than those who never use them. This demonstrates that there is no causal relationship between cell phone use and increased risk of meningioma. 8 An experiment performed on rats found that there was no substantial increase in brain tumors for rats exposed to radiation like those emitted from a cell phone.

9 Another study found no increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use across different categories such as duration of use, number of years of usage as well as number of calls. 10 In addition RF energy is not enough energy to destabilize the configurations within DNA molecules. A study published in 2008 reported that no concrete evidence supporting the relationship between energy emitted from a cell phone and the increase in tumors due to structural and functional damage in cells.

11 One study tested the effects of RF radiation on the amount of chromosome abnormalities through exposing lymphocytes in human blood cells in vitro to 1. 95 GHz and found no significant chromosome abnormalities. 12 Another study tested the effects of 835 MHz of radiation similar to that of a mobile phone on DNA stability in vitro and found that it did not degrade the DNA in vitro. 13 In summary it has been proven that cell phone use can cause cancer by causing malignant tumors to form in areas that are in close contact of a cell phone.

It can also cause detrimental structural damage in the DNA of cells which can lead to formation of cancer. In addition, the radiation emitted from a cell phone can cause stress to the cells in the body which decreases the cytoprotection and increases the risk of cancer. However some studies have demonstrated that the radiation emitted from a cell phone is far too low to cause the formation of a malignant tumor. This is also dependent on how many hours the cell phone is used and the frequency of usage.

As well many studies have revealed that the RF radiation of a cell phone is also too low to cause any significant structural damage in DNA which leads to cancer. Given the evidence from both sides of the study, there is more overwhelming evidence suggesting that cell phone use does cause cancer and can be biologically harmful to the body and the cells of the body if used frequently and continuously. Works Cited 1. Hardell, Lennart. , Carlberg, Michael. & Hansson Mild, Kjell. Mobile Phone Use and the Risk for Malignant Brain Tumors: A Case-Control Study on Deceased Cases and Controls.

Neuroepidemiology 35, 109-114 (2010) 2. Hardell, Lennart. , Carlberg, Michael. , Mild, Kjell Hansson. Methodological Aspects of Epidemiological Studies on the Use of Mobile Phones and their Association with Brain Tumors Environmental Journal 2, 54-61 (2008) 3. Hartikka, Hanna; et al. Mobile phone use and location of glioma: A case-case analysis Bioelectromagnetics 30, 176-182 (2009) 4. Daniels, WMU. , Pitout, IL. , Afullo, TJO. , Mabandla, MV. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat. METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE 24, 629-641 (2009) 5. Salford et al.

Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones Environment Health Perspectives 111, 881-883 (2003) 6. Markova, E. , Malmgren, LO. , Belyaev, IY. Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk. Environ Health Perspectives 118, (2010) 7. Di Carlo, A. , White, N. , Guo, F. , Garrett, P. , Litovitz, T. Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY 84, 447-454 (2002).

8. Lahkola, A et al. Meningioma and mobile phone usea collaborative case-control study in five North European countries. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 37 1304-1313 (2008) 9. Shirai, T et al. Lack of promoting effects of chronic exposure to 1. 95-GHz W-CDIVIA signals for IMT-2000 cellular system on development of N-ethylnitrosourea-induced central nervous System Tumors in F344 rats. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS 28, 562-572 (2007) 10. Lahkola, Anna et al. Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries. International Journal of Cancer 120, 1769-1775 (2007) 11. Kaprana, AE et al.

Studying the effects of mobile phone use on the auditory system and the central nervous system: a review of the literature and future directions. EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY 265, 1011-1019 (2008) 12. Manti, L. Effects of modulated microwave radiation at cellular telephone frequency (1. 95 GHz) on X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro. RADIATION RESEARCH 169, 575-583 (2008) 13. Chang, SK et al. Genotoxicity evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by 835-MHz mobile phone frequency band. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER PREVENTION 14, 175-179 (2005).

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