Disease in the News: Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, TB (tubercle bacillus) or MTB (mycobacterium tuberculosis) is a widespread, and in numerous cases fatal, communicable disease produced by a variety of forms of mycobacteria. The disease is distributed within the air when individuals who are infected with active TB infection sneeze, cough, or pass on breathing fluids throughout the air. Generally infections are asymptomatic, meaning they feel or show no symptoms, and dormant, but then again approximately one in ten dormant infections in the long run move on to the active disease. If left untouched, active TB is fatal to more than half of those infected.

The characteristic warning signs of active TB infection are a constant cough which produces blood- tinted phlegm, temperature, and loss of weight. Infection of other body systems produce a wide array of warning signs. Classification of active TB is dependent upon radiological testing (x-rays of the lungs), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test, also known as TST and blood tests. Treatment is complex and calls for administration of numerous antibiotics over an extensive period of time.

Social contacts, such as family, friends, and co-workers are also examined and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention depends on screening programs and immunization with the bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccine. According to the World Health Organization, one-third or approximately 2. 5 billion people, of the world’s population is believed to have been infected with tuberculosis, with new infections taking place in about 1% of the population each year.

Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low to middle income countries, and it is among the top three causes of death for women aged 15 to 44 (WHO, 2013). There were 8. 7 million new cases of active tuberculosis worldwide back in 2011 and 1. 4 million died from it. Despite the accessibility of inexpensive and successful treatment, tuberculosis still accounts for millions of cases of active disease and deaths worldwide. The disease unreasonably has an effect on the neediest persons in both high-income and developing countries.

However, recent improvements in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and enhanced implementation of present interventions have increased the outlooks for enhanced clinical care and global tuberculosis restriction. Claims Currently there are new drug classes that are in investigative trials. Of these, two classes (nitroimidazoles and oxazolidinones) and two medications (bedaquiline and SQ-109) have new methods of action for tuberculosis. Phase 2 trials of bedaquiline added to existing therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have shown a substantial increase in the rate of sputum-culture conversion at 8 weeks of therapy.

Phase 3 trials of each drug are underway, and manufacturers have applied for accelerated marketing approvals by regulatory agencies. Accelerated approval was recently granted by the Food and Drug Administration for the use of bedaquiline in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Several studies of combination drugs are being conducted or are being planned, although these trials face barriers that include pharmacokinetic interactions, the reliance on clinical rather than surrogate end points, and the relatively low financial incentive for drug companies to perform such trials.

The efficient evaluation of new drug combinations will require close cooperation among the drug companies and nonprofit sponsors of clinical trials. The three-drug combination of moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, and PA-824 has 14-day bactericidal activity similar to that of standard four-drug therapy. Linezolid has recently shown to achieve sputum-culture conversion in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, and further evaluations are under way. Conclusion Tuberculosis remains one of the major causes of death worldwide.

The upsurge and spread of drug resistance interaction with the HIV epidemic are presenting problematical challenges and impeding global attempts at tuberculosis control. New molecular diagnostics have created earlier and enhanced diagnosis of active disease possible. Research laboratory capability and resources are required for these tests to become obtainable all through the advancing world. Modern antituberculosis drugs offer the potential of reduced treatment procedures for drug-sensitive disease and more successful treatment for drug-resistant disease and dormant infection.

New vaccines against tuberculosis in progressive clinical trials extend hope for future tuberculosis control. Even though these scientific advances are promising, the international economic predicaments continue to get in the way of tuberculosis-control programs. Strong governmental and monetary commitments will be essential to pull off large-scale control of tuberculosis and ward off millions of uncalled for fatalities. The mortality rate can be almost half of what it is now with these improvements. References

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (March 2013). Novel Tuberculosis Therapeutic: SQ109. Retrieved June 24, 2013, from http://www. niaid. nih. gov/about/organization/dmid/success/pages/sq109. aspx World Health Organization (February 2013). Fact Sheet N 104. Retrieved June 23, 2013 from http://www. who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index. html Zumla, M. D. , Ph. D. , A. (February 2013). Tuberculosis. Retrieved June 24, 2013, from http://www. nejm. org/doi/full/10. 1056/NEJMra1200894.

Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacteria tuberculosis. One third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis with new infections occurring at …

Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacteria tuberculosis. One third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis with new infections occurring at …

Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that usually attacks the lungs. It is considered a challenging disease to diagnose, treat, and control. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is usually referred to as TB. If it …

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a germ (bacterium) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This germ primarily affects the lungs and may infect anyone at any age. In the United States, the number of TB cases steadily decreased until 1986 …

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