Discuss symptoms

“Write a 1500 – 2000 word report into 3 classified psychological disorders of your choice. Discuss symptoms, causes and explanations of the using research” Introduction Within this report there are investigations into Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The focus will be specifically on the symptoms and causes of these three psychological disorders, providing theories and giving a true understanding why research continues for each of these disorders. Symptoms of Alzheimer’s

Early symptoms at the early stages of Alzheimer’s may be that an individual can appear dissimilar, not necessarily something to pinpoint. Their persona can seem unable to cope, minor interaction with their environment and unable to adapt to surroundings. Some signs of lack of interest in activities or hobbies that primarily involved with. Also signs of being very indecisive, unable to concentrate for periods and avoidance of responsibility. There have been signs of strange behaviour, for example although retired they may get themselves ready for work.

Their moods may continuously alter and may be peevish and suspecting, which is believed to be to the fact that they are experiencing these alterations and know that something isn’t quite right. Unfortunately these symptoms aren’t instantly recognisable or often identified. There is no specific progression time with Alzheimer’s but is known to be gradual which causes the difficulty of diagnosis. This can alter frequently between sufferers and not necessarily show signs of all symptoms, often being bypassed and diagnosed incorrectly by professionals.

Currently there are 3 stages of development: The cause of Alzheimer’s is still a significant area of research. After years of research there is still the confusion of how people develop Alzheimer’s. There is now a clearer understanding that this disease develops more with the advance of age but is still unclear of the understanding of what components trigger the typical shift that eventuate in the brain tissue of humankind who attract this disease.

There is a clear understanding that these brain changes occur with age but also this isn’t a regular change with the development of age. There have been some circumstances where this disease has been contracted at an early age. It is believed that the human genes play a particular part in the maturation of a high percentage of Alzheimer’s. In extremely sparse cases it is known that abnormal genes are tangible to the specific cause. More frequently, genes are believed to merely donate to peoples receptive to the disease (Cayton, Graham & Warner 2004).

Alzheimer’s has been proven to not be linked to any form of infection even though signs have been noted after times of stress and when an individual is particularly worried, but it’s felt it’s not specifically a trigger from these form of emotions. There has been opinion that certain deficiencies such as dietary or hormonal may have a bestowment to the progression of this disease, even though most doctors do not believe in this presumption. Also the fact that aluminium present in the diet is a resulting factor.

It has been noted that any form of head injury earlier on in life may intensify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (Cayton, Graham & Warner 2004). Certain research has shown that the genes affiliated with Alzheimer’s may influence chemicals known as neurotransmitters; this allows the transmittal between nerve cells. One form of neurotransmitters, named acetylcholine, is known to be lacking in this form of disease. Alternatively, abnormal genes may effectuate through the influence on the nerve growth factor. The genes might intermeddle, enhancing the augmentation of functioning nerve cells to reimburse the death of the other cells.

Foregoing experiments have focussed on a gene that creates a protein called apolipoprotein E (ApoE). There are three forms of ApoE – E2, E3 and E4. Every individual inherits an ApoE gene from each parent. Evidence has shown that individuals that inherit E4 gene have a considerable elevated risk of exhibiting Alzheimer’s. Also identified have been abnormalities on three other genes – PS1 (presenilin type 1), PS2 and APP (amyloid precursor protein) has been identified as causes of the sparse inherited form, but the mechanism is still unclear.

There is no clear explanation of Alzheimer’s; continuous research is looking at these factors. Individuals at the prime of their intellectual powers can be diagnosed with it. People feeling anxious at their loss of stability and their identity and access to their personal memories. Brains shrink and the neurons modify their shape, exhibiting ‘tangles and plaques’ (Rose 2003). Symptoms of Schizophrenia Some symptoms of Schizophrenia are commonly having chaotic thinking patterns, and frequently endure delusions.

These frequent delusions often compromise of “ideas of reference”, in which the individual endears great personal importance to objects or events. For example an individual suffering from schizophrenia may see neighbours talking and come to the conclusion that they are conspiring to kill them. Through this illness you can frequently occur hallucinations. Delusions emerge from misconstrued elucidation of objective phenomena and events, but hallucinations appear in the distraction of external stimulus. A high percentage of Schizophrenic hallucinations consist of voices, normally saying something of personal pertinence to the individual.

Suggestions were made by McGuigan (1966) that auditory hallucinations happen because sufferers misconceive their own inner speech for another’s voice. It was found that the individual’s larynx was frequently operative during the encounter of the auditory hallucinations. A magnitude of recent studies has clarified the interpretation of hallucinations (Frith, 1992). Subsequently, there are sufferers of Schizophrenia whose demeanour is more extreme. The most customary behavioural abnormalities inhabit almost stationery for long periods of time. Others do strange grimaces whilst others continually repeat unusual gestures.

Research into schizophrenia shows that there is a major genetic component but the fact that concordance rates between identical twins is never 100% means that there must be environmental contributions.’ Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia. (30 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder …

‘Research into schizophrenia shows that there is a major genetic component but the fact that concordance rates between identical twins is never 100% means that there must be environmental contributions.’ Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia. (30 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder …

In my essay I will attempt to explain schizophrenia and the symptoms of the disorder. I will also describe and evaluate evidence that has been put forward to attempt to explain what causes the disorder. First of all I will …

Lack of motivation- is a of energy or interest in life that is often confused with laziness, because the ill person has very little energy, he or she may not be able to do much more than sleep and pick …

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