Osteosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of malignant osteoid, bone, or cartilage formation. Epidemiology of Disease Osteosarcoma is an early cancerous growth that usually occurs to adolescences even though it may appear on the elderly in some cases. Basic bone malignancy seems to be the most common form of cancer that strikes the long bones. However, this may differ with the difference in age (Savage, & Mirabello, 2011). It is not easy to detect osteosarcoma until puberty, even though it may appear at childhood.
The osteosarcoma risk is high at the youth period and declines as at the age of 25. There is a smaller peak at and after the age of 80. Reports over time indicate increased osteosarcoma cases in the United States and Europe. The reports also show that there is a reduction of the condition in the elderly. According to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, the prevalence of osteosarcoma vary by both age and race. For instance, in Asia the risk is high in children and adolescents.
This is not the case with the Blacks as the risk is high between the ages of 25 and 59. The incidence is high at the age of 60 for Whites, and the childhood stage for Italians. The prevalence is higher in tall persons than the short ones (Savage, & Mirabello, 2011). In terms of gender, osteosarcoma affects males more often than females. However, girls less than 15 years are more likely to be affected than their male counterparts. Black females have the high risk of getting the cancer at the elderly age, especially those that have had a previous cancer incidence.
The increase in the occurrence at the age of 15 to 19 in the females suggests that growth and hormonal changes are linked to puberty are involved in the occurrence of osteosarcoma (Ottaviani, & Jaffe, 2009). Based on age the osteosarcoma risk occurrences vary from one continent or race to another. The disease increases with age in most cases except for some continents and races. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of Osteosarcoma often times people do not have any symptoms. There are other cases where there are symptoms that are similar to those with other medical conditions.
Osteosarcoma is cancerous, and it is a bone marrow disease which attack obsolescence and teenager to adult. The tumors also weaken the bones slow down normal movement and causing fractures. Osteosarcoma is a common kind of bone cancer. These are the signs and symptoms listed below according to Caring four Cancer. * Fractures – Osteosarcoma can weaken the bone where it starts and this sometimes, though not often makes the bone break. About one-third of telangiectatic osteosarcomas, which are rare, cause a fracture at the tumor site. * Lump – Depending on where the tumor is, you might be able to feel a lump.
* Pain – The most common symptom of osteosarcoma is pain in the bone where the cancer has started. At first, the pain is not constant, and it might be worse at night. The pain increases when you are active. If it is in your leg, it might make you limp. If the pain is in your arm, you might have trouble lifting heavy objects. If the tumor is in the pelvis or the base of the spine, it can cause back pain or loss of bowel or bladder control. The pain tends to get worse over time. * Swelling or stiffness – Unusual swelling or stiffness in the joints can be a sign of osteosarcoma. Diagnosis How is Osteosarcoma diagnosed?
When a person is having discomfort feelings are unusual pain should consult their physician and complete a physical examination. During their visit the doctor will ask several questions and complete a medical history by asking the patient about their risk factors, symptoms, and other health problems. The doctor will also do a physical exam to look for signs of the deadly disease. The doctor will do a biopsy which is the only way to diagnose the patience with osteosarcoma. There are several tests that will perform to diagnose this patient such as a biopsy, blood tests, bone scan, CT scan, MRI scan, bone x-ray, and PET scan.
* Open biopsy – The surgeon finds the tumor and cut a piece of tissue. * Blood test – A technician will take blood from the patient and send it to the lab for testing. The blood test can be helpful to determine how serious and advanced the osteosarcoma is. There are different levels of the following chemicals in the blood mean that the cancer will be more difficult. * Bone scan – The doctors injects a radioactive dye into the vein and the computer creates a picture of all the bones in your body. * Computed Tomography scan (CT) – A CT scanner takes pictures as it rotates around you a computer takes these pictures of your body.
CT scans also help to see if the tumor has spread to the lungs and it all help the doctor to find the best spot for the biopsy. * Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – MRI provides complete pictures of the soft tissues, bone tumor, and bone marrow cavity. * Positron emission Tomography (PET) – The doctor injects a small amount of glucose that has a radioactive atom into your arm and a special camera in the PET machine will be able to detect the radioactivity. This test is useful to see if the cancer has spread. * Bone x-ray – A bone x-ray gives important information about bone lesions that could indicate osteosarcoma.
There are additional symptoms that include weight loss, fatigue, and anemia. Osteosarcoma often starts near the ends of the bones especially, around the knee, and the part of the lower leg bone that is next to the knee. The symptoms of bone cancer depend on the size and location of the tumor. Pain is the most common symptom. Tumors arising in or around the joints often cause swelling tenderness. Treatment How Osteosarcoma is treated? Ostescarcoma will be treated base on your overall health that will decide on the way your doctor will treat your illness.
Surgery and chemotherapy will be the best way to treat the disease and sometimes radiation therapy is used in relatively few cases to treat. According to Caring 4 Cancer: Your doctor will work with you to choose the best treatment for you to choose the best treatment for your osteosarcoma based on: * Your age, overall health, and medical history * Extent of the disease * Grade and stage of the cancer * Your tolerance of specific medicines, procedures, or therapies * Expectations for the course of the disease * Your opinion or preference The entire treatments have benefits and risks.
Following the diagnosed and stage of osteosarcoma your physician will recommend a treatment plan that will best work for you. Treatment will include: * Surgery – The surgeon will performs surgery for osteosarcomas that starts in the arms or legs to remove the cancer sometimes amputation is required. Nevertheless, certain osteosarcomas cannot be removed by surgery because of where they are located, such as the base of the skull or in the spine or pelvis. * Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy drugs kill cancerous cells. Chemotherapy works by stopping cancer cells from growing or reproducing, which kills the cells.
Nearly all cases of osteosarcoma are treated with chemotherapy before surgery to shrink the tumor and after surgery to kill any cancer cells left in the body. Two or three drugs are usually given together. * Radiation therapy – Radiation therapy uses high–energy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. However most patients with osteosarcoma are not treated with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy Medicines include: * Carboplatin (paraplatin) * Cisplatin * Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) * Doxorubin (Adriamycin) * Epirubicin * Etoposide * Ifosfamide (Ifex) * Methotrexate (high dose) with leucovorin.
Screening and Prevention Screening test can detect certain types of cancer at an early stage. But, there is no screening test to find osteosarcoma early. This form of cancer is best to treated at an earliest stage, when it is most curable is to ask your doctor as soon as potential signs or symptoms of the disease. This cancer starts about three months before the cancer is diagnosed. Prognosis According to Health Guide from the New York Times, if the tumor has not spread to the lungs (pulmonary Metastasis), long-term survival rates are better. If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the outlook is worse.
However, there is still a chance of cure with effective treatment. References A. D. A. M. (2011, 12 15). New York times. Retrieved from December 6, 2012 http://health. nytimes. com/health/guides/disease/osteosarcoma/overview. html Caring4cancer. (2010, 7 15). What are signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma?.
Retrieved from December 6, 2012. https://www. caring4cancer. com/go/osteosarcoma/basics/what- Ottaviani. G. , & Jaffe, N. (2009). The epidemiology of osteosarcoma. Retrieved from December 5, 2012. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/201338 Ottaviani. G. , & Jaffe. N. (2009). The epidemiology of osteosarcoma.
Retrieved from December 6, 2012. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/20113383 Savage. S. A. , & Mirabello. L (2011). Using Epidemiology and Genomics to Understand Osteosarcoma Etiology. Retrieved from December 6, 2012 http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3061299/ A. D. A. M. (2011, 12 15). New york times. Retrieved from December 6, 2012. http://health. nytimes. com/health/guides/disease/osteosarcoma/overview. html A. D. A. M. (2011, 12 15). New York times. Retrieved from December 6, 2012 http://health. nytimes. com/health/guides/disease/osteosarcoma/overview. html.