•Developed countries often experience gender equality where both males and females have opportunities and choices with regards to education, employment, community participation and recreation. In many developing countries, females do not have the same opportunities as males in society. •Access to contraception, choice with regards to family planning, career choices and education contribute to low birth rates of many developed countries compared to developing countries •Most developed countries experience strong political and legal systems. Unstable government and political unrest are characteristic of many developing countries and increase the risk of civil conflict.
•Developed countries have health systems. People are usually able to access basic health care when they need it. Those in developing countries often lack access to suitable health care, which affects the level of wellbeing they experience ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS •People in developed countries generally have access to a quality food supply however those in developing countries often lack food security •Compared to developed countries, many people in developing countries lack access to adequate housing.
They often live in housing with poor ventilation, lack of heating and cooling, poor resistance to infestation of disease carrying organisms such as insects, lack of cooking facilities and running water, and poor protection from the elements •Developed countries usually have adequate roads, piped water, sewerage systems, electricity grids and telecommunication systems. People living in developing countries often lack access to such facilities Global marketing Global marketing means marketing and promoting a product throughout the world Three of the largest globally marketed products have some of the greatest impacts on health: tobacco, alcohol and processed foods.
Tobacco The desire to be more westernised and targeted marketing has led to increases in rate and number of smokers in developing countries. Increased rates of smoking in developing countries is contributing to an increased burden of disease, particularly in relation to an increase in lifestyle related diseases, especially cancers, cardiovascular disease and respiratory conditions Interventions by governments and non-government organisations in many developed, including advertising and packaging laws, increased taxation on cigarettes and laws relating to smoking in public places have led to a decrease in smoking rates.
Alcohol Like tobacco companies, alcohol manufacturers are increasingly marketing their products towards people in developing countries that often lack the resources to educate the population about alcohol, control alcohol consumption and care for those suffering the negative effects associated with excessive drinking such as liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer Like developing countries, alcohol consumption is a significant health concern for many developed countries despite education and public awareness campaigns relating to alcohol misuse.
Though accessibility of health care in developed countries may reduce the impact of alcohol misuse compared with that in developing countries Processed foods Companies producing processed foods have been marketing their products in developing countries for years. As a result many people in developing countries have neglected their traditional diets, which are often low in fat, for westernised foods. These are often high in fat, salt and/or sugar and contribute to a more energy dense diet.
This is contributing to an increased incidence of lifestyle diseases such obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disease Processed foods have been marketed in developed countries for many years and have contributed to the high rates of overweight and obesity and related conditions such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes Developing countries Developing countries are targeted to make up for lost revenue experienced in developed countries due to laws, regulations and public awareness campaigns about the health concerns associated with the three products.
Human development Human development – creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people’s choices and enhancing capabilities.
IN ORDER TO IMPROVE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, PEOPLE NEED TO BUILD CERTAIN CAPABILITIES AND FREEDOMS. SOME OF THESE INCLUDE BEING ABLE TO: OLEAD LONG AND HEALTHY LIVES OHAVE ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE OHAVE ACCESS TO THE RESOURCES NEEDED FOR A DECENT STANDARD OF LIVING OPARTICIPATE IN THE LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY OPARTICIPATE IN THE DECISIONS THAT AFFECT THEIR LIVES WITHOUT THESE CAPABILITIES ABOVE, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT WILL NOT PROGRESS.
IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT THAT THESE CAPABILITIES AND FREEDOMS ARE ABLE TO BE MAINTAINED IN THE LONG TERM Human development index The human development index is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries’ levels of social and economic development. It provides a single statistic based on three dimensions – health, education and living standards, and four indicators – life expectancy, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita Influence on health status and human development – Australia compared to developing countries Income.
There is a relationship between GNI and poverty, with those countries with low GNI experiencing higher rates and levels of poverty Poverty usually results in an inability of pregnant women to afford health care, nutritious foods and education all of which contribute to higher rates of maternal mortality Poverty increases rates of malnutrition as malnutrition is often the result of an inability to afford nutritious foods. Malnutrition decreases immune function, which increases the risk of infection, and reduces the ability for individuals to reach their potential, which impacts on human development.
Gender equality In many developing countries, countless women are often neglected with regard to health care and other services and essential supplies, which increases mortality rates Women may be the last fed and may not receive enough nutrients, leading to malnourishment. Adequate nourishment is a basic need and having basic needs met is a fundamental aspect of human development. Peace and political stability Many developing countries are currently experiencing war or civil conflict. During conflict the physical environment can be destroyed, which can limit access to supplies and services such as health care.
As a result, malnutrition is increased an conditions such as injuries and infections are left untreated during times of conflict, impacting on health status Mental health is often affected during times of conflict, with individuals concerned for the health and wellbeing of themselves and their families. This affects human development by preventing people from reaching their full potential Access to health care Many children in developing countries are unable to access immunisations. Without immunisations diseases spread much faster and affect many more people, lowering life expectancy.
High levels of disease prevent many children from accessing education and developing to their full potential, which affects human development levels. Education In developing countries many governments do not have the funds available to provide education for their people. As a result children do not reach their full potential. Those who are uneducated are less likely to adopt health promoting behaviours such as implementing methods to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases.
Physical environment Access to water and sanitation: People in developing countries are at a greater risk of the effects of unsafe water, sanitation and unregulated water courses as they are less likely to have the infrastructure to supply clean drinking water and remove human waste effectively. Lack of sanitation leads to an increased rate of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid.
In many developing countries where water is not available, often people have to walk long distances to collect water, carry it back and make this trip a few times a day which reduces the ability to peruse education or paid employment, and contributes significantly to the development of physical ailment such as musculoskeletal conditions Housing: As well as drinking, water is required for food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes.
Without adequate water and sanitation, the standard of hygiene can decrease and the house become a breeding ground for diseases and pests, which can lead to ill health People in developing countries generally have higher levels of indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution increases the risk in pneumonia among children under 5 and chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer among adults over 30. Chronic disease can impact on opportunities that people have including education and employment, which can decrease levels of human development.