CU254 causes and spread of infection

1. 1 Viruses are pieces of nucleic acid wrapped in a thin coat of protein that replicate only within cells of living host. Bacteria are one cell micro-organisms with simple cellular organizations whose nucleus lacks a membrane. Parasites may be protozoa, yeast or multi cellular organisms such as fungi or worms that live in or on a host to obtain nourishment without providing any benefit to the host. Fungi there are many different varieties of fungi, and we eat quite a few of them. Mushrooms are fungi, as is mould that forms the blue or green veins in some types of cheese.

And yeast, another type of fungi, is a necessary ingredient to make most types of bread. 1. 2 Fungi: – athletes foot. Virus: – AIDS Bacteria: – salmonella, E. coli. Parasites: – Lyme disease, scabies, malaria. 1. 3 Infection begins when an organism successfully colonizes by entering the body, growing and multiplying. Most humans are not easily affected. Those who are weak, sick, and malnourished, have cancer or are diabetic have increased chances to chronic or persistent infections. Individuals who have suppressed immune system are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Entrance to the host generally occurs through the mucosa in orifices like the oral cavity, nose, eyes, gentitalia, anus, or open wounds, while a few organisms can grow at the initial site of entry. Many migrate and cause systemic infection in different organs; some pathogens grow within the host cells (intracellular) whereas others grow freely in bodily fluids. 1. 3 A systemic infection is generally more serious, it can include things like Lyme disease, aids, tuberculosis. It can also be a chest or urinary tract infection, depending how serious it gets.

What separates a systemic infection to a localised infection is that for it to be a systemic infection the bacteria or virus must enter the blood stream. When bacteria or viruses are in the bloodstream there is the potential for the infection to spread to other organs and functions, symptoms of a systemic infection include headache, pains, nausea, seizures, cardiac problems and even death by septicaemia (blood poisoning) if medical treatment not sought. A localised infection always has the potential to turn into a systemic infection. A localised infection starts as a cut or small wound.

Usually these do not require treatment, only good self care. However, if it starts to get infected, like puss comes out or is very hot to touch, antibiotics may be required from your doctor. If not treated, then a systemic infection may result. 1. 5 Poor personal hygiene, incorrect disposal of rubbish, waste, chemicals, not washing hands properly, not cleaning your surroundings, not covering your nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing, sharing towels/tooth or hair brushes, not following policies or reporting outbreaks, or episodes of diseases.

Direct contact with bodily fluids and waste. 2. 1 The main requirements for growth of micro-organisms are time and moisture, some need oxygen and warmth, although micro-organisms can live without air and live in temperatures from 0 to 40+ degrees. 2. 2 Mouth, lungs, cuts, contact with skin or any other external organs such as eyes, entry via any orifice, ears urinary tract, anus, nose, vagina, and mixing of bodily fluids by any of the above. 2. 3.

Food, water, sick people (colds and flu or winter vomiting virus) animals and poor housing (invaded with pests such as mice or damp or mould). 2. 4 Sneezing or coughing, poor hygiene, through inhalation, touching contaminated items, direct contact with another person. 2. 5 Re-using equipment without proper sterilisation, poor hygiene/hand washing, staff not following procedures, failure not wearing correct protective clothing or gloves. Inadequate procedures in relation to highly infectious individuals.

Bacteria| Can be helpful, can be an aid in digestion, able to break down sewage, can be used in food (yoghurt), affects odour, taste and texture. Needs nutrients, pH, time, temperature, +/- Oxygen and water activity to grow. | Lyme …

Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites? -Viruses aren’t living. They’re only made of complex proteins and nucleic acids. Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites are living organisms. – Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms. Fungi and Parasites are multicellular. – Fungi have …

Bacteria are a single cell micro-organism that can only be seen from under a microscope. It survives off the nutrients from its surroundings. Viruses are disease producing agents far smaller than bacteria. They are enclosed in a protein coating which …

Identify Common Sources of Infection Outcome 1  Understand the causes of infection 1. Identify the difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites? The difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites is: Bacteria Bacteria is a single celled organism, bacteria have …

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